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19 Mass Storage IO II

19 Mass Storage IO II

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1
CSC 4103 - Operating SystemsSpring 2008
Tevfik Ko
!
ar
Louisiana State University
April 10
th
, 2008
Lecture - XIX
Mass Storage and I/O - II
 
RAID Structure
As disks get cheaper, adding multiple disks to the samesystem provides increasedstorage space, as well asincreasedreliabilityandperformance.
RAID: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
multiple disk drives provides
reliability
via
redundancy
.
RAID is arranged into six different levels.
RAID (cont)
RAID schemes improve performance and improve thereliability of the storage system by storing redundantdata.
Mirroring (shadowing): duplicate each disk
Simplest but most expensive approach
Block interleaved parity 
uses much less redundancy.Data Striping:splitting each bit (or block) of a file acrossmultiple disks.
RAID LevelsRAID Level 0
5
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RAID Level 0
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RAID Level 1
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7
RAID Level 1
8
RAID Level 2
!
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RAID Level 2
10
RAID Level 3
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!
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11
RAID Level 3
12
 
RAID Level 4
!
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!
*+#$"&$)22%.%)*#$"&$B:C!$-)()-$F;$,)."8&)$<"&$%*$B:C!$-)()-$E=$"--$0"1%#7$'"#"$%&$91%##)*$#+$"$&%*5-)$'1%()
!
&+$B:C!$-)()-$G$&822)1&$21+4$"$91%#)$,+##-)*)./$"*'$%&$*+#$5)*)1"--7$8&)'>$
13
RAID Level 4
14
RAID Level 5
!
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!
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!
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15
RAID Level 5
16
RAID Level 6
Similar to RAID 5, but uses dual distributed paritymore reliability versus less data space
17
Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM)
A hierarchical storage system extends the storagehierarchy beyond primary memory and secondarystorage to incorporate tertiary storage — usuallyimplemented as a jukebox of tapes or removable disks.Usually incorporate tertiary storage by extending thefile system.
Small and frequently used files remain on disk.Large, old, inactive files are archived to the jukebox.
HSM is usually found in supercomputing centers andother large installations that have enormous volumes of data.

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