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Chapter 3(Immersed Surfaces) Corrected by Reviewer

# Chapter 3(Immersed Surfaces) Corrected by Reviewer

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Fluid Mechanics Hydrastatic forces chapter
Fluid Mechanics Hydrastatic forces chapter

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05/11/2014

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FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
47
HYDROSTATIC FORCES
Chapter-3HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON IMMERSED SURFACESINTRODUCTION
:When a solid object like a plane or curved surface is immersed in a static fluid (fluid at rest), thesurface experiences an upward pushing pressure exerted, by the fluid. As the surface penetrate intointerior depths of the fluid, the upward pushing pressure increases due to increase in pressurehead, as seen in hydrostatic law.As per the Pascal’s law, the pressure exerted by the fluid is uniform in all the directions,through out the surface immersed in the fluid, and hence we can treat all the pressure intensitiesacting on the immersed surface, as a single pressure
(P)
acting at a single point (named as
Centerof Pressure
) on the surface and in addition to this center of pressure, the surface do posses
Center of Gravity

G
where the whole weight of the surface concentrates. Hence in this sectionwe will be focusing on this two center points namely
Center of Pressure
and
Center of Gravity
for carrying out derivations on pressures exerted on Horizontal plane surface, Vertical planesurface, inclined plane surface and Curved surface.
PRESSURE EXERTED ON HORIZONTAL PLANE SURFACE:
When a plane surface immersed in a liquid horizontally the
Center of pressure
where

the total pressure acts and
Center of gravity
G
where the center of gravity of the body concentrated,coincides with each other.Consider a horizontal plane surface having area “A” immersed in a liquid having specificweight

, as shown in figure.3.1.Let the distance of center of pressureand center of gravity on the plane surface fromthe liquid surface be
h
and
x
respectively and asthe two center point coincides, their distancesfrom the liquid surface also coincide. i.e.
h x
.The plane surface immersed in liquiddisplaces some volume of the liquid, which isequal to the weight of the plane surface and sothe total pressure that acts on the plane surfacewill be equal to the weight of the liquid displaced above the immersed plane surface. I.e.
Totalpressure

P
is equal to weight of the liquid above the immersed surface.
liquid above immersed surface
P
*()(3.0)
P Ax
 

sin ( )
Weight ce SpecficWeighVolme Ax

Eq:(3.0) gives the
Total Pressure acting on a object immersed horizontally
, in a liquid.
PRESSURE EXERTED ON VERTICAL PLANE SURFACE:
Consider a Vertical plane surface having area “A” and width “b” immersed in a liquid havingspecific weight

. As the plane surface is immersed vertically, the
Center of pressure
and
Center of gravity
G
may or may not coincide with each other (it depends on the shape of the plane surface), as shown in figure.3.2.Let the distance of center of pressure and center of gravity on the plane surface from theliquid surface be
h
and
x
respectively.
Total Pressure
:Considering a strip of the immersed object of dimension
,
b dx
, the
total pressure
s
p
acting onthe strip
due to pressure intensity of the liquid on the strip is
(*)
s
p p b dx

(*)
s
p x b dx
 

*sin*
b dx xweight ce p x Area b dx
 

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
48
HYDROSTATIC FORCES
Total pressure acting on the plane surface
will be
(*)(3.1)
s
P p x b dx
 

But
(*)
b dx x

is the
moment of inertia
of the immersed plane surface about liquid surface level(
first moment of inertia
).i.e.
(*)(3.1)
o
I b dx x Ax a

Substituting Eq:(3.1a) in Eq:(3.1), wehave
Total pressure acting on the planesurface immersed vertically as
*()(3.2)
P Ax
Total Moment:
Moment of the strip due to total pressure
s
p
is
*
s s
M p x
. So the total moment onthe object immersed will be
*(3.3)
M P h

Pr*tan
Moment essure perpendicular dis ce
Q
.Substituting Eq:(3.1a), Eq:(3.2) in Eq:(3.3), we have
*
o
M P h
 

*()*
o
Ax h

(3.3)
o
I h Ax
If converted in terms of
moment of inertia of gravity

G
I
about the surface level then according to parallel axis theorem from engineering mechanics, we have
2
(3.3)
o G
I I A x a
 
Substituting Eq:(3.3a) in Eq:(3.3), we have
(3.4)
G
I h x Ax
Example.3.1:
An open tank of 5m x 3m x 6m is completely filled with oil (shown in figure.P3.1)of specific gravity 0.8. Determine the total pressure and center of pressures on all the facesincluding the base.
Solution:
Given data:
5,3,6,0.8
L m B m H m
 
Base
EFGH is horizontal and has area
2
5 *3 15
A m m m
and center of gravity
6
x m
And hence total pressure
0.8*9810*15*6706.32
P Ax k
Faces
AEHD and BFGC are vertical and has area of
2
6 *3 18
A m m m
and
3
x m
.And hence total pressure
0.8*9810*18*3423.792
P Ax k
And center of pressure
3
12
G
bd  I h x x Ax Ax
 
3
3*612313418*3
h m
 

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
49
HYDROSTATIC FORCES
Faces
AEFB and DHGC are vertical and has area of
2
5 *6 30
A m m m
and
3
x m
.And hence total pressure
0.8*9810*30*3706.32
P Ax k
And center of pressure
3
12
G
bd  I h x x Ax Ax
 

3
5*612313430*3
h m
 
Example.3.2:
A plane surface in the shape of a trapezium is immersed in a liquid having specificgravity of 0.8 such that the smaller side is at the surface level of the liquid free surface and is of dimensions as shown in the figure. Determine the total pressure acting on the trapezium planesurface and also the center of pressure.
Solution:
Given data:
2 , 5 , 3 , 0.8
a m b m h m
   
The area of the trapezium
a+bA=h2
 

2
2+5A= 3* 10.52
m
 
Center of gravity from the bigger side as the base is
h2a+b 3a+b
x
 

32*2+51.28532+5
x m
 
Hence the
Center of gravity
from the smaller side is
331.2851.715
x x m
Or else
if the trapezium is divided into a rectangle and two triangles, then Center of gravity interms of area will be
1 1 2 2 3 3 t1 2 3 t
****2**2*2*1.52*0.5*1*3*21.7152*2*22*0.5*1*3
rect trirec trirec tri
A x A x A x A x A x x m A A A A A
And hence total pressure
***0.8*9810*10.5*1.715141.32
water
P Ax S A x k
Center of pressure
2 23
a+b+4abh36(a+b)
G
I h x x Ax Ax
 

2 23
2+5+4*2*5336(2+5)1.7152.12510.5*1.715
h m
 
Hence the center of gravity is 1.715m and center of pressure is 2.125m.
Example.3.3:
A plane surface in the shape of a trapezium is immersed in a liquid having specificgravity of 0.8 such that the smaller side is at 2m below thesurface level of the liquid free surface and is of dimensionsas shown in the figure. Determine the total pressure actingon the trapezium plane surface and also the center of  pressure.
Solution:
Given data:
2 , 5 , 3 , 0.8
a m b m h m
   
The area of the trapezium
a+bA= h2
 
(refer: Table.3.1)
2
2+5A= 3* 10.52
m
 