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Chapter Two Terms, The Planting of English America, APUSH

Chapter Two Terms, The Planting of English America, APUSH

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Published by: Julie on Sep 09, 2009
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Chapter Two: The Planting of English America
Protestant Reformation:Protestant Reformation:Protestant Reformation:Protestant Reformation:King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launchingthe Reformation.After Elizabeth ascended to the throne in 1558, Protestantism becamedominant.England’s rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified.Elizabethan CompromiseElizabethan CompromiseElizabethan CompromiseElizabethan Compromise::::Once Elizabeth became Queen, she undid the Catholicism under Mary.Act of Supremacy: made Elizabeth the “Supreme Governor of the Church inEngland” and bound the clergy to an oath of loyalty.Act of Uniformity: made wording of Communion vague so that Protestants andCatholics could participate, mandated use of Anglican prayer books, keptornaments of the Catholic ChurchEnglish “Sea Dogs”English “Sea Dogs”English “Sea Dogs”English “Sea Dogs”::::English buccaneers took over shipping lanes, with the goals of promotingProtestantism by interrupting Spanish treasure ships and raiding Spanishsettlements.Francis Drake returned in 1580, netting profits of 4600% to his financialbackers. Elizabeth knighted him for his success.“Lost Colony”“Lost Colony”“Lost Colony”“Lost Colony”----RoanokeRoanokeRoanokeRoanoke::::Newfoundland was first attempt at English colonization, led by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who died in 1583.Inspired his half-brother Sir Walter Raleigh to organize expedition on NorthCarolina’s Roanoke Island, off coast of Virginia.Mysteriously disappeared, never heard from again.Spanish ArmadaSpanish ArmadaSpanish ArmadaSpanish Armada::::King Philip II of Spain used New World profits to amass an “Invincible Armada”to invade England. Spanish flotilla of 130 entered English Channel and weresubsequently outmaneuvered by the English sea dogs. The “Protestant Wind”then scattered the rest of the fleet.Defeat of Spanish Armada marked the end of Spanish imperial designs.Enclosure MovementEnclosure MovementEnclosure MovementEnclosure Movement::::Population growing exponentially, from 3 million people in 1550 to about 4 millionin 1600.Landlords were “enclosing” croplands for sheep grazing, forcing small farmersoff the land.This mobile population was encouraged to leave for the New World.
Chapter Two: The Planting of English America
PrimogeniturePrimogeniturePrimogeniturePrimogeniture::::Only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates, while landholders’ambitious younger sons were forced to seek fortunes elsewhere.“Lone-wolf” enterprises were usually unsuccessful.“Joint“Joint“Joint“Joint----Stock” CompaniesStock” CompaniesStock” CompaniesStock” Companies::::Early version of modern corporations, allowed investors to pool resources andmade expeditions more likely to be successful.Investors were called “adventurers.”Most were intended to only last a few years, after which stockholders plannedto liquidate for a profit. Most investors did not think about long-termcolonization.Virginia Company Virginia Company Virginia Company Virginia Company----Charter Colony Charter Colony Charter Colony Charter Colony::::The Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I ofEngland for a settlement in the New World.Main goal was the attraction of gold as well as possibly finding a passage tothe East.Colonists pressured to strike it rich for the company or risk being abandoned inthe wilderness.Charter granted overseas settlers the same rights as Englishmen. This helpedreinforce the colonists’ sense of unity with traditional English.JamestownJamestownJamestownJamestown----Captain John SmithCaptain John SmithCaptain John SmithCaptain John Smith::::Charter led to the three ships of the Virginia Company landing near the mouthof Chesapeake Bay, where they were attacked by Native Americans.Further onward, they chose a location on the malarial banks of the JamesRiver. About 100 settlers disembarked at Jamestown.Early years brought numerous deaths from disease, malnutrition, and starvation.While there was plenty of game and fish, the “gentlemen” refused to gatherprovisions and instead searched for gold.Captain John Smith took over in 1608 and proclaimed that “He who shall notwork shall not eat.”“Starving Time”“Starving Time”“Starving Time”“Starving Time”::::Colonists reduced to eating dogs, cats, rats, and mice, even digging up corpsesfor food. One colonist killed and ate his wife.Of four hundred who settled by 1609, only sixty survived “starving time” winterof 1609-1610.Settlers attempted to return to England in 1610, but forced back by newgovernor, Lord De La Warr, who imposed harsh military regime on colony andundertook military action against Native Americans.
Chapter Two: The Planting of English America
PowhatanPowhatanPowhatanPowhatan::::Dominated native peoples living in the James River area. Asserted supremacy over a few dozen small tribes in “Powhatan’s Confederacy.”English colonists mistakenly dubbed all Native Americans in the area asPowhatans. The chieftain Powhatan may have seen the English as potentialallies to extend his power, but relations later grew tense.English raided Native American food supplies.After Lord De La Warr arrived in 1610, carried orders that amounted to adeclaration of War. Introduced “Irish tactics,” including raiding villages,confiscating provisions, and torching cornfields.Peace settlement ended First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614, sealed by marriageof Pocahontas to John Rolfe.Native Americans struck back in 1622, left 347 settlers dead. VirginiaCompany issued new orders calling for a “perpetual war” against NativeAmericans.Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644, Natives defeated. Second treaty banished them from their ancestral lands and formally separated them fromwhite areas of settlement.Victim to three Ds: disease, disorganization, and disposability Disease: extremely susceptible to European-borne maladies, such as smallpoxand measlesDisorganization: lacked unity to effectively oppose whites.Disposability: served no apparent economic function for Virginia colonists.They were not a reliable labor source and had no valuable commodities tooffer in commerce.John RolfeJohn RolfeJohn RolfeJohn Rolfe::::Married Pocahontas in the peace settlement that ended the First Anglo-Powhatan War. First known interracial union.Died upon Second Anglo-Powhatan War.Father of the tobacco industry. Perfected methods of raising and curingtobacco. Led to tobacco rush in Virginia as demand grew in England.Soil ExhaustionSoil ExhaustionSoil ExhaustionSoil Exhaustion----“Land Butchery”“Land Butchery”“Land Butchery”“Land Butchery”::::Virginia’s prosperity was due to tobacco production, but when planted insuccessive years, it was ruinous to the soil.Colonists had to important food because land was used to grow tobacco.Excessive tobacco growing depleted the soil, driving settlers westward topenetrate further into the continent.

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