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Ncm 100 Lecture Notes

Ncm 100 Lecture Notes

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Published by: anreilegarde on Sep 09, 2009
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April 14, 2005NURSING THEORY
Why the interest in theory?1.The no. 1 requisite if we have to be on the level of being a professional.2.To guide us in how to go about the different nursing actions.3.It becomes a framework for organizing data.Theory – speculative in nature Nursing Theory – mental conceptualization where the perspective is a nursing aspect-explain & describe a particular nursing action-can also predict its effects on clients’ outcome-primary purpose is to generate scientific knowledge-serve several essential purposes1.Description – clarifying ideas, phenomena, experience or circumstances that are not wellunderstood. E.g. meaning of pain to patient2.Exploration – how ideas are related. E.g. relationship of pain to patient’s physiological & psychological conditions3.Explanation – the whys of events & occurrences4.Prediction & Control – knowing & foretelling correctly what will happen & also how tomake it happen. E.g. how to control the severity of the client’s painComponents of a Theorya.Concepts – basic unit in the language of theoretical thinking- can be empirical or concrete (can be observed through the senses) or abstract(not observable) b.Definitions – statements of the meaning of a wordc.Assumptions – accepted factsd.Phenomena – realityTypes of Theoriesa.Grand Theories – does not prescribe actions- provide structural framework  b.Middle Range Theories – more helpful to nursing practice- narrower focus than grand theory, more precise than grand theories & focus ondeveloping theoretical statements to answer questions about nursingc.Descriptive Theory – speculative; predictived.Prescriptive – can anticipate what might be the consequences of nursing actionsWhat are included in the nursing paradigm?a.Client/Patient/Person/Individual – control to all nursing models because it is the clientwho is the primary recipient of nursing care b.Health – a continuum ranging from a completely healthy state where there is no diseaseto a completely unhealthy state which results to a multifactorial phenomena.-always ask client what is their definition of health to guide you to make decisionsregarding their carec.Environment – from simple physical environment to include elements such as livingconditions, public sanitation, air & water quality to factors such as IPR & socialinteractions, internal environment & factors that affect health (psychological, religious beliefs, etc.)d.Nursing – nurse-client relationship, the client is no longer the passive recipient of nursingcare
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I.Judeo-Christian Viewa.Genesis 1:26-28 – “man is made in the image of God; man is to increase in number, fillthe earth and subdue it” b.Colossians 3:12-17 – “We are Gods’ chosen people; we have to clothe ourselves withcompassion, kindness, humility, gentleness & patience; be forgiving & over all thesevirtues put on love…Whatever we do whether in word or in deed, we do it all in the nameof the Lord.”c.Spiritual Virtues of man/personc.1. Faith – the unquestioning belief in someone or something or the completetrust & confidence or reliance on places in a person or thing. Example,faith in doctors, hospitals…c.2. Hope – nourishes faith, its presence or absence often plays a part indetermining the patient’s prognosis, illness, state of well-being &acceptance of dying processc.3. Charity – love for one’s fellowman. It allows one to give up his own pleasures while serving another without even thinking of the sacrifices itentails.II.The Scientific Perspective (HC1 Handouts)a.Biological Being – a living organism, who from birth is destined to die, until he does hehas to contend continually with forces in his environment. Man responds to theenvironmental stimuli as a particular unit – be it a solitary cell, a component organism or a member of conglomerate of individualsa.1. Organismic Behavior a.2. Man as a Systema.3. The energy-matter exchange of manIII.The Atomistic ApproachMan is viewed as an organism composed of different organ systems & each system iscomposed of organs & each organ is made up of tissue cells. The cell is the basic unit of thehuman body.IV.Holistic Approach (Total)The study of the total behavior of man in relation to society. Stimuli in the environment provide the necessary forces to enable man to demonstrate consciously or unconsciously thenature of his responses & the subsequent quality & relationship with his environment.Address questions like – How does he cope with stresses? What makes one fail or succeed?V.Human Needs ModelMaslow’s framework of basic needs is based on the theory that something is a basic needif its absence results in illness, its presence prevents illness or signals health, & meeting anunmet need restores healthVI.Man as a Rational Being – The Psychosocial PerspectiveMan, the psychosocial being is capable of rational, logical thinking most of the time butcan become irrational & illogical when provoked. His rational side makes him merciful, kind& compassionate, while his irrational nature may make him commit criminal acts againstanother man.According to Travelbee, Man is “a unique, irreplaceable (cannot be exchanged for another, even with transplants), a one-time being in this world, when he dies he ceases toexist.
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Theorist’s Concept on Person
1.Rosemarie Rizzo Parse – 
  –influenced by constant interaction of human and ones environment –Human being is an open being in mutual process with the universe, co-creating patterns of relating with others, “lives at multidimensional realms of the universe allat once, freely choosing ways of becoming, as meaning is given to situations. Thehuman being and the universe are inseparable in the creation of the living experience –Co-creating – man and universe are affecting each othe –Rhythmical pattern happens when man interacts with another man –Behavior of a person is influenced by ones ancestors –Man has a passive relationship with the environment2.Florence Nightingale – 
-considers the environment as an important factor -referred to the person as the patient-man inherently has the capacity to heal itself, given the right environment-for most part, the descriptions describe a passive patient3.Virginia Henderson -
theorist to attempt to define what is nursing-“A person is a whole, is complete, & independent being who has 14 fundamentalneeds.”1.breathe normally 5. sleep & rest2.eat & drink adequately 6. select suitable clothes3.eliminate body waste 7. maintain body temp.4.move & maintain desirable position 8. keep the body clean & well-groomed4.Martha Rogers – 
-psychic, physical or molecular energy-energy field – fundamental unit of both living & non-living.-Field is a unifying concept & energy signifies the dynamic nature of the field-A person is irreducible-The person is in continuous exchange with energy (matter & energy)-Pattern – identifies the energy field. It is the distinguishing characteristic of anenergy field & is perceived as a single wave-In the unitary being, the whole is greater than the individual parts5.Sister Callista Roy – 
-person is a biopsychosocial being who is in constant interaction with the environment& that has four models of adaptation based on physiologic needs-man copes with stressorsCoping mechanisms to stressors1.Regulator – coping subsystem that responds automatically through the neural &endocrine system inherently responds2.Cognator – control processes related to higher brain functions of perception or information processing, judgment & emotion.Adaptive Mode1.Physiologic – physical response to environmental stimuli & primarily involves theregular subsystems. The basic needs met in this mode are physiologic integrity &is composed of needs associated with oxygenation, nutrition, elimination, etc.2.Self-Concept – basic need for psychic integrity, its focus is on the psychological& spiritual aspects of the person.3.Role-Function Mode – defines how the person relates with another as a copingmechanism
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