(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009
examples are Bifocal Displays , Graphical Fisheye Views etc.
Interactive Linking and Brushing
The idea of linking and brushing is to combine differentvisualization methods to overcome the shortcomings of singletechniques. It can be applied to visualizations generated by allvisualization techniques described above. As a result, thebrushed points are highlighted in all visualizations, making itpossible to detect dependencies and correlations. Interactivechanges made in visualization are automatically reflected inthe other visualization. Typical examples of visualizationtechniques which are combined by linking and brushing aremultiple scatterplots, bar charts, parallel coordinates, pixeldisplays, and maps. Most interactive data exploration systemsallow some form of linking and brushing. Examples arePolaris , XGobi  and DataDesk .Experiments with the real world problems showed that thevisualization can significantly increase the quality andusefulness of web log mining results. However, how decisionmakers perceive and interact with a visual representation canstrongly influence their understanding of the data as well asthe usefulness of the visual presentation. In section III we tryto explore the human aspects in visualization. In section IV wediscuss some research examples.II.
Most common technique of visualization is Graph drawingand it has been subject of research since decades [5, 9].Graphs are a natural means to model the structure of the web,as the pages are represented by nodes and the links representedby edges. Many graph algorithms are used, in original oradapted form, to calculate and express properties of web sitesand individual pages [4, 7, 8]. Although to a lesser extent,graph theoretic methods have also been applied to the usernavigation paths through web sites . WebQuilt is a loggingand visualization system  which is interactive in the sensethat it provides semantic zooming and filtering, given astoryboard. Webviz , VISVIP , VisualInsights  aresome other visualization tools. So many commercialvisualization tools for representing association rules have alsobeen developed. Some of them are MineSet  and QUEST. Becker [15, 16] describes a series of elegant visualizationtechniques designed to support data mining of businessdatabases. Westphal et al.  give an excellent introductionof visualization techniques provided by current data miningtools. Cockburn and McKenzie  mention various issuesrelated to graphical representations of web browsers’revisitation tools.How a viewer perceives an item in a visualization displaydepends on many factors, including lighting conditions, visualacuity, surrounding items, color scales, culture, and previousexperience . There are so many technical challenges indeveloping a good visualization tool one of the big challengesis
Much novel visualization techniqueshave been presented, yet their widespread deployment has nottaken place, because of user acceptability due to lack of visualanalytics approach. Many researchers have started their work in this direction. An example is the IBM Remail project which tries to enhance human capabilities to cope with emailoverload. Concepts such as “Thread Arcs”, “CorrespondentsMap”, and “Message Map” support the user in efficientlyanalyzing his personal email communication. MIT’s projectOxygen  even goes one step further, by addressing thechallenges of new systems to be pervasive, embedded,nomadic, adaptable, powerful, intentional and eternal. Usersare an integral part of the visualization process, especiallywhen the visualization tool is interactive. Rheingans suggeststhat interaction should not be simply a “means to the end of finding a good representation” . Interaction itself can bevaluable since exploration may reveal insight that a set of fixed images cannot. Human factors-based design involvesdesigning artifacts to be usable and useful for the people whoare intended to benefit from them. Unfortunately, thisprinciple is sometimes neglected in visualization systems.III.
How people perceive and interact with a visualization tool canstrongly influence their understanding of the data as well asthe system’s usefulness. Human factors (e.g. interaction,cognition, perception, collaboration, presentation, anddissemination) play a key role in the communication betweenhuman and computer therefore contribute significantly to thevisualization process and should play an important role in thedesign and evaluation of visualization tools. Several researchinitiatives have begun to explore human factors invisualization.
Testing of Human Factors
There are so many Human Computer Interaction interfacesavailable. Each interface is tested for its functionality(usability study) and ease of interaction (user studies).
Ease of interaction
To test ease of interaction we consider only real users andobtain both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative datatypically measures task performance e.g. time to complete aspecific task or accuracy e.g. number of mistakes. User ratingson questions such as task difficulty or preference also providequantitative data. Qualitative data may be obtained throughquestionnaires, interviews, or observation of subjects using thesystem.Walenstein  describes several challenges with formaluser studies. According to him the main problem in the userstudies is that we studies so many users but the true facts aboutthe ease and benefits can be told only by the experts who canbe difficult to find or may not have time to participate inlengthy studies. Another problem is that missing orinappropriate features in the test tool or problems in theinterface can easily dominate the results and hide benefits of the ideas we really want to test. Thus, it seems that userstudies can only be useful with an extremely polished tool sothat huge amounts of time must be invested to test simpleideas that may not turn out to be useful. One solution to thisproblem is to have user studies focus on design ideas rather
50ISSN 1947 5500