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Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

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Published by ijcsis
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multi-hop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack and Jellyfish attack.
This paper is based on Rushing attack. In Rushing attack, the attacker exploits the duplicate suppression mechanism by quickly forwarding route discovery packets in order to gain access to the forwarding group and this will affect the Average Attack Success Rate. In this paper, the goal is to measure the impact of Rushing attack and their node positions which affect the performance metrics of Average Attack Success Rate with respect to three scenarios: near sender, near receiver and anywhere within the network. The performance of the Attack Success Rate with respect to above three scenarios is also compared.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multi-hop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack and Jellyfish attack.
This paper is based on Rushing attack. In Rushing attack, the attacker exploits the duplicate suppression mechanism by quickly forwarding route discovery packets in order to gain access to the forwarding group and this will affect the Average Attack Success Rate. In this paper, the goal is to measure the impact of Rushing attack and their node positions which affect the performance metrics of Average Attack Success Rate with respect to three scenarios: near sender, near receiver and anywhere within the network. The performance of the Attack Success Rate with respect to above three scenarios is also compared.

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Published by: ijcsis on Sep 09, 2009
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Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast inMobile Ad Hoc Network
V. PALANISAMY
1
, P.ANNADURAI
2
,
1 Reader and Head (i/c), Department of Computer Science & Engineering,Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu ,IndiaEmail: vpazhanisamy@yahoo.co.in2
 
Lecturer in Computer Science, Kanchi Mamunivar Centre forPost Graduate Studies (Autonomous) , Lawspet, Puducherry, India.Email: annadurai_aps70@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract
 — 
 
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate witheach other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure orcentralized administration such as base station or accesspoints. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well asrouters to forward packets for each other in a multi-hopfashion. For many applications in wireless networks,multicasting is an important and frequent communicationservice. By multicasting, since a single message can bedelivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatlyreduces the transmission cost when sending the same packetto multiple recipients.The security issue of MANETs in group communicationsis even more challenging because of involvement of multiplesenders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting,mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routingprotocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackholeattack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack and Jellyfish attack.This paper is based on Rushing attack. In Rushing attack,the attacker exploits the duplicate suppression mechanismby quickly forwarding route discovery packets in order togain access to the forwarding group and this will affect theAverage Attack Success Rate.In this paper, the goal is to measure the impact of Rushing attack and their node positions which affect theperformance metrics of Average Attack Success Rate withrespect to three scenarios: near sender, near receiver andanywhere within the network. The performance of theAttack Success Rate with respect to above three scenarios isalso compared.
 Index Terms
 — 
Multicast, Rushing attack, MANETs,Security, Multicast, attack strategies, Security threats,Attacks on Multicast.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 A mobile ad hoc network is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other viawireless links with no infrastructure or centralizedadministration such as base stations or access points.Nodes in MANET operate both as hosts as well as routersto forward packets for each other in a multi-hop fashion.MANETSs are suitable for applications in which noinfrastructure exists such as military battlefield,emergency rescue, vehicular communications and miningoperations.In these applications, communication and collaborationamong a given group of nodes are necessary. Instead of using multiple unicast transmissions, it is advantageous touse multicast in order to save network bandwidth andresources, since a single message can be delivered tomultiple receivers simultaneously. Existing multicastrouting protocols in MANETs can be classified into twocategories: tree based and mesh-based. In a multicastrouting tree, there is usually only one single path betweena sender and a receiver, while in a routing mesh, theremay be multiple paths between each sender receiver pair.Routing meshes are thus suitable than routing trees forsystems with frequently changing topology such asMANETs due to availability of multiple paths between asource and a destination. Example tree-based multicastrouting protocols are MAODV, AMRIS, BEMRP, andADMR. Typically mesh-based multicast routingprotocols are ODMRP, FGMP, CAMP , DCMP , andNSMP [2].Among all the research issues, security is an essentialrequirement in MANET environments. Compared towired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable tosecurity attacks due to lack of trusted centralizedauthority, lack of trust relationships between mobilenodes, easy eavesdropping because of shared wirelessmedium, dynamic network topology, low bandwidth, andbattery and memory constraints of mobile devices. Thesecurity issue of MANETs in group communications iseven more challenging because of the involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. Although severaltypes of security attacks in MANETs have been studiedin the literature, the focus of earlier research is on unicast(point to point) applications. The impacts of securityattacks on multicast in MANETs have not yet beenexplored [3].In this paper, we present a simulation-based study of the effects of Rushing attack on multicast in MANETs.We consider the most common types of attacks, namelyrushing attack, blackhole attack, neighbor attack and jellyfish attack.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009ISSN 1947 5500183
 
A. Goal
The goal of this paper is to impact of rushing attack onmesh-based multicast in MANETs.
The rushing attack 
,that acts as an effective denial-of-service attack againstall currently proposed on-demand ad hoc network routingprotocols, including protocols that were designed to besecure. [2]In this work, to simulate three scenarios: The attackernode is place at near sender, the attacker node is place atnear receiver. The attacker node is place anywhere withinthe MANETs. Based on above scenarios, to simulate howthe Rushing attack affects the network performance.
 B. Reading Roadmap
This paper starts with this section, which gives a brief introduction, and goal of this paper.
Section 2
describespreliminaries for multicast attacks in MANETs. TheImproved model scheme Impact of Rushing Attack onMulticast in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (IRAMA) ispresented in
Section 3
.
In Section 4
, we discuss theexperimental results and discussion. Finally, conclusionsare given in
Section 5.
II.
 
MULTICAST
 
AND
 
ITS
 
ATTACKS
 
IN
 
MOBILE
 
AD
 
HOC
 
NETWORK
 
 A. Introduction
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicatewith each other via wireless links with no fixedinfrastructure or centralized administration such as basestation or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operateboth as host as well as routers to forward packets for eachother in a multi-hop fashion. For many applications inwireless networks, multicasting is an important andfrequent communication service. By multicasting, since asingle message can be delivered to multiple receiverssimultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission costwhen sending the same packet to multiple recipients [4,5]
.
Multicast is communication between a single senderand multiple receivers on a network. Otherwise ittransmits a single message to a select group of recipients.Multicast is used, for example, in streaming video, inwhich many megabytes of data are sent over the network.Single packets copied by the network and sent to aspecific subset of network addresses. These addresses arespecified in the Destination Address. Protocol to allowpoint to multipoint efficient distribution of packets,frequently used in access grid applications. It greatlyreduces the transmission cost when sending the samepacket to multiple recipients. The option to multicast wasmade possible by digital technology to allow each digitalbroadcast station to split its bit stream into 2, 3, 4 or moreindividual channels of programming and/or data services.Instead of using multiple unicast transmissions, it isadvantageous to use multicast in order to save bandwidthand resources. Since a single message can be delivered tomultiple receivers simultaneously. Multicast data maystill be delivered to the destination on alternative pathseven when the route breaks. It is typically used to refer toIP multicastwhich is often employed forstreaming mediaand At theData Link Layer, 
multicast 
describes one-to-many distribution such asEthernet multicast addressing, Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) point-to-multipointvirtual circuits orInfinibandmulticast.Teleconferencing andvideoconferencingalso use multicasting, but requiremore robust protocols and networks.Standardsare beingdeveloped to support multicasting over aTCP/IPnetwork such as theInternet.These standards,IP Multicastand Mbone,will allow users to easily join multicast groups.[6]
 B. Attack against ad hoc network 
While a wireless network is more versatile than awired one, it is also more vulnerable to attacks. This isdue to the very nature of radio transmissions, which aremade on the air. On a wired network, an intruder wouldneed to break into a machine of the network or tophysically wiretap a cable. On a wireless network, anadversary is able to eavesdrop on all messages within theemission area, by operating in promiscuous mode andusing a packet sniffer (and possibly a directionalantenna). Furthermore, due to the limitations of themedium, communications can easily be perturbed; theintruder can perform this attack by keeping the mediumbusy sending its own messages, or just by jammingcommunications with noise. [1]Security has become a primary concern to provideprotected communication between mobile nodes in ahostile environment. Unlike wireline networks, theunique characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks pose anumber of non-trivial challenges to the security design.Providing security support for mobile ad-hoc networks ischallenging for several reasons: (a) wireless networks aresusceptible to attacks ranging from passiveeavesdropping to active interfering, occasional break-insby adversaries
(b) mobile users demand ―anywhere,anytime‖ services; (c) a scalable solution is needed for a
large-scale mobile network (d) Dynamic topology (e)infrastructure less (f) Peer
 – 
to-peer network (g) Lack of centralized authority [17].
C Attacks on Multicast 
Multicast conserves network bandwidth by sending asingle stream of data to multiple receivers. Packets areduplicated only at branch points. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even morechallenging because of involvement of multiple sendersand multiple receivers. Some different types of multicastattacks are Rushing attack, Balckhole attack, Neighborattack, and Jellyfish attack.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009ISSN 1947 5500184
 
 D. Rushing Attack 
A rushing attacker exploits this duplicate suppressionmechanism by quickly forwarding route discoverypackets in order to gain access to the forwarding group.[8]Figure 1 Rushing Attack Goal: to invade into routing pathsTarget: multicast routing protocols that use a
duplicate suppression mechanism
in order toreduce routing overheads.Method: quickly forwards route discovery(control) packets by skipping processing orrouting steps. Rushing attack otherwise, falselysending malicious control messages and thenforwards the packet fastly than clear nodereachable.
 E. BlackHole Attack 
An attacker can drop received routing messages,instead of relaying them as the protocol requires, in orderreducing the quantity of routing information available tothe other nodes.This is called
black hole attack 
, a
nd is a ―passive‖ and
a simple way to perform a Denial of Service. The attack can be done selectively (drop routing packets for aspecified destination, a packet every
n
packets, a packetevery
seconds, or a randomly selected portion of thepackets) or in bulk (drop all packets), and may have theeffect of making the destination node unreachable ordowngrade communications in the network.
 
 Message Tampering
An attacker can also modify the messages originatingfrom other nodes before relaying them, if a mechanismfor message integrity (i.e. a digest of the payload) is notutilized.A packet drop attack or black hole attack is a type of denial-of-service attack accomplished by droppingpackets. Black holes refer to places in the network whereincomingtrafficis silently discarded (or "dropped"),without informing the source that the data did not reachits intended recipients [8,9].Figure 2 (a). Black Hole Attack (Drop all packets)Goal: to damage the packet delivery ratioTarget: all multicast protocolsMethod: an attacker
o
 
First invades into forwarding group (e.g., byusing rushing attack),Then drops some or all data packets instead of forwarding themFigure 2(b) Black Hole attack (small amt of data onlydrop)Black Hole attacks effects the packet delivery and toreduce the routing information available to the othernodesCauses:It down grade the communicationEffects of making the destination nodereachable
F. Neighbor Attack 
Upon receiving a packet, an intermediate node recordsits Id in the packet before forwarding the packet to thenext node. An attacker, however, simply forwards thepacket without recording its Id in the packet to make twonodes that are not within the communication range of each other believe that they are neighbors (i.e., one-hopaway from each other ), resulting in a disrupted route.
NodeAttacker node(Black Hole)Packet sentInitiatorDestinationPacket dropSome amountof data sent
ForwardInitiator & destinationAttacker node
(rushing)
Packet sent
 InitiatorDestination
 
Packet sent
 
Packet drop & end
 connectionNode
AttackernodePacketsentInitiatorDestination
Packet drop &end connection
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009ISSN 1947 5500185

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