Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Denizens of Alien Worlds a Survey of Students and Teachers at Pakistan's Urdu and English Language-medium Schools, And Madrassas

Denizens of Alien Worlds a Survey of Students and Teachers at Pakistan's Urdu and English Language-medium Schools, And Madrassas

Ratings: (0)|Views: 7 |Likes:
Published by Usman Ahmad
This Research Note surveys the major types of schools in Pakistan. These areUrdu language-medium schools
, madrassas
(Islamic seminaries) and elite English language-medium schools (both cadet colleges and private institutions). These schools are divided according to the medium of instruction and curriculum, as well as on the basis of socio-econ-omic class. While the English language-medium schools cater for the middle, upper-middleand upper classes, the Urdu language-medium schools are aimed at the lower-middle and working classes, and the
madrassas
provide education for poor, marginalized or veryreligious people. The expenditure by society and the state on these institutions perpetuatesclass divisions in Pakistan. Alarmingly, the world view of the students of these institutions,especially the
madrassas
and private English language-medium schools, is so polarized onissues of militancy (regarding Kashmir) and tolerance (of religious minorities and women)that they seem to inhabit different, and violently opposed, worlds. In the future, this may bea source of social instability, internal conflict and violence in Pakistan.
This Research Note surveys the major types of schools in Pakistan. These areUrdu language-medium schools
, madrassas
(Islamic seminaries) and elite English language-medium schools (both cadet colleges and private institutions). These schools are divided according to the medium of instruction and curriculum, as well as on the basis of socio-econ-omic class. While the English language-medium schools cater for the middle, upper-middleand upper classes, the Urdu language-medium schools are aimed at the lower-middle and working classes, and the
madrassas
provide education for poor, marginalized or veryreligious people. The expenditure by society and the state on these institutions perpetuatesclass divisions in Pakistan. Alarmingly, the world view of the students of these institutions,especially the
madrassas
and private English language-medium schools, is so polarized onissues of militancy (regarding Kashmir) and tolerance (of religious minorities and women)that they seem to inhabit different, and violently opposed, worlds. In the future, this may bea source of social instability, internal conflict and violence in Pakistan.

More info:

Published by: Usman Ahmad on Jan 04, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/04/2014

pdf

text

original

 
This article was downloaded by: [University of Alberta]On: 06 June 2012, At: 10:30Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Contemporary South Asia
Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccsa20
Denizens of alien worlds: A survey of students and teachers at Pakistan'sUrdu and English language-mediumschools, and madrassas
Tariq RahmanAvailable online: 02 Jul 2010
To cite this article:
 Tariq Rahman (2004): Denizens of alien worlds: A survey of students andteachers at Pakistan's Urdu and English language-medium schools, and madrassas , ContemporarySouth Asia, 13:3, 307-326
To link to this article:
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsThis article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representationthat the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of anyinstructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primarysources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
 
Contemporary South Asia
 13
(3), (September 2004) 307–326RESEARCH NOTE
Denizens of alien worlds: a surveyof students and teachers atPakistan’s Urdu and Englishlanguage-medium schools, and
 madrassas
TARIQ RAHMAN
ABSTRACT
 This Research Note surveys the major types of schools in Pakistan. These areUrdu language-medium schools
, madrassas
 (Islamic seminaries) and elite English language-medium schools (both cadet colleges and private institutions). These schools are divided according to the medium of instruction and curriculum, as well as on the basis of socio-econ-omic class. While the English language-medium schools cater for the middle, upper-middleand upper classes, the Urdu language-medium schools are aimed at the lower-middle and working classes, and the
 madrassas
 provide education for poor, marginalized or veryreligious people. The expenditure by society and the state on these institutions perpetuatesclass divisions in Pakistan. Alarmingly, the world view of the students of these institutions,especially the
 madrassas
 and private English language-medium schools, is so polarized onissues of militancy (regarding Kashmir) and tolerance (of religious minorities and women)that they seem to inhabit different, and violently opposed, worlds. In the future, this may bea source of social instability, internal conflict and violence in Pakistan.
There is a dearth of literature on major types of schools—Urdu language-me-dium schools, English language-medium schools, and
 madrassas
 (Islamic semi-naries)—widespread today in Pakistan. A number of otherwise authoritativebooks
1
on the country’s school system defend present policies, talk of thenecessity of nation-building and focus on public-funded schooling (i.e. vernacu-lar-medium schools), but fail to describe elitist English-medium schools and
madrassas
, except in passing. While government reports (see later) do give somespace to
 madrassas
 and English-language medium cadet colleges, they treat the
Correspondence: Dr Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam Univer-sity, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: dr.trahman@sat.net.pk and drt_rahman@yahoo.comISSN 0958-4935 print; 1469-364X online/04/030307-20
 ©
 2004 Taylor & Francis LtdDOI: 10.1080/0958493042000272212
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   0  :   3   0   0   6   J  u  n  e   2   0   1   2
 
TARIQ RAHMAN
two types of schools as exceptions and therefore not deserving of detailedtreatment. Although
 Education and the State
, a collection of articles edited byPervez Hoodbhoy on the fiftieth anniversary of the creation of Pakistan, isexceptional in that it describes
 madrassas
2
and schools run by non-governmentalorganizations
3
as well as community-based organizations,
4
it does not touchupon the elitist English-language medium schools.
5
This lack of attention is alarming, especially as students of Urdu-languageschools, English-language schools and
 madrassas
 have such different opinionsas to live in different worlds. To understand these different institutions and theirgraduates is to understand how dangerously polarized Pakistani society today is,and how this has hampered national cohesion and a sense of commitment tounified policies. This article presents a survey of the three major types of schooleducation—Urdu-medium, English-medium (both private and cadet college), and
madrassas— 
with a view to examining how they function and what kind of opinions, or worldview, their students have gained.
Methodology
The historical part of this article relies upon official Pakistan governmentdocuments on education policy and published sources. Its description of thecondition of educational institutions at present comes from both published worksand unpublished sources, such as school budget statements, interviews of teachers and administrators, and so on. The data on the family income of students and faculty come from a small survey of 230 students and 100 teachersof Urdu-medium schools undertaken in December 2002 and January 2003 (forfull details, see Appendix A). This is followed by the results of a larger surveyof 618 students and 243 teachers carried out from December 2002 to June 2003in Urdu-medium schools, English-medium schools (including private institutionsand cadet colleges), and Sunni
 madrassas
. This second survey seeks to ascertainthe views of students and faculty on controversial issues such as Kashmir, therights of minorities and women, and other sensitive topics (for full details, seeAppendix B).
Educational policies in Pakistan
Beginning with the National Education Conference of 1947, there have been atleast 22 major reports on education issued by the government from time to time.Among the most salient are the
 Report of the Commission on National Edu-cation
,
6
The New Education Policy
,
7
The Education Policy (1972–1980)
,
8
 National Education Policy
,
9
and
 National Education Policy: 1998–2010
.
10
Thesereports have been summed up very ably by Kaiser Bengali who tells us that‘setting targets, bemoaning the failure to achieve the same, and setting newtargets with unqualified optimism has been a continuing game policy makershave played
 ad nauseam
 and at great public expense over the last 50 years’.
11
308
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   0  :   3   0   0   6   J  u  n  e   2   0   1   2

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->