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My Cousin’s Enemy is My Friend: A Study of Pashtun “Tribes”

My Cousin’s Enemy is My Friend: A Study of Pashtun “Tribes”

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Published by: monocle on Sep 10, 2009
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UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED
My Cousin’s Enemy is My Friend: A Study of Pashtun “Tribes”in Afghanistan
Afghanistan Research Reachback Center White PaperTRADOC G2 Human Terrain SystemUnited States ArmyFort Leavenworth, KSSeptember 2009
 
UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED
AFRRC FP AF 2009SEP01 01 Afghan Tribes U
2
Summary
This report consists of two main parts: the first part is an overview of the existinghistorical and anthropological research on Pashtun “tribes” in Afghanistan, and thesecond part examines how “tribes” behave in Afghanistan. It is based mostly on academicsources, but it also includes unclassified government information and research performedby HTS Human Terrain Teams, which have been attached to U.S. Army brigades since2007.Military officers and policymakers, in their search for solutions to problems inAfghanistan, have considered empowering “the tribes” as one possible way to reducerates of violence
. In this report, the HTS Afghanistan RRC warns that the desire for“tribal engagement” in Afghanistan, executed along the lines of the recent “Surge”strategy in Iraq, is based on an erroneous understanding of the human terrain.
Infact, the way people in rural Afghanistan organize themselves is so different from ruralIraqi culture that calling them both “tribes” is deceptive. “Tribes” in Afghanistan do notact as unified groups, as they have recently in Iraq. For the most part they are nothierarchical, meaning there is no “chief” with whom to negotiate (and from whom toexpect results). They are notorious for changing the form of their social organizationwhen they are pressured by internal dissension or external forces. Whereas in some othercountries tribes are structured like trees, “tribes” in Afghanistan are like jellyfish.
1
 Instead of “tribal engagement” in Afghanistan, the HTS Afghanistan RRC advocates for“local knowledge, cultural understanding, and local contacts,” in the words of DavidKilcullen.
2
There are no shortcuts. What this means in practical terms is a need to focuson ground truth, looking at local groups and their conflicts, rather than arriving withpreconceived notions of how people should or might, given the proper incentives,organize themselves tribally. Most of Afghanistan has not been “tribal” in the last fewcenturies, and the areas that might have been (majority-Pashtun areas that make up partsof Regional Commands South and East) have changed drastically over the past 30 years.Pashtuns may choose to organize themselves along many different forms of identity, andmay be conscious of belonging to more than one form of community simultaneously.
Pashtuns’ motivations for choosing how to identify and organize politically—including whether or not to support the Afghan government or the insurgency—areflexible and pragmatic. “Tribe” is only one potential choice of identity among many,and not necessarily the one that guides people’s decision-making.
 
UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED
AFRRC FP AF 2009SEP01 01 Afghan Tribes U
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Methods Followed
This report was originally intended to be a literature review of the existing English-language anthropological and historical research on Pashtuns, and specifically theresearch on Pashtun “tribes” in Afghanistan and their behavior. It does not representoriginal research on the topic. The HTS Afghanistan RRC sought to include the full rangeof existing opinions about tribes in Afghanistan.After the literature review, it became clear that, among academic anthropologists andhistorians, there is a unanimous consensus on the subject of tribes in Afghanistan. Theconsensus position holds that groups that behave “tribally,” according to the classicdefinitions of Middle Eastern tribes, are hard to find in Afghanistan. In fact, manyscholars are reluctant to use the word “tribe” at all for describing groups in Afghanistan.Since there was such an overwhelming consensus position among academics, the HTSAfghanistan RRC devoted significant personnel resources to seek out dissentingpublished and unpublished academic views on the topic. The reason for adding on thisapproach was that many who return from Afghanistan tend to say that, in fact, tribes
are
 important. The HTS Afghanistan RRC wanted to find some representation of that opinionin existing academic research.The result of the RRC’s search for dissenting positions on tribes was a very small amountof historical research and analysis, none of which was performed by academicanthropologists or historians. The positions argued by these scholars have been taken intoaccount, but because they provide no original fieldwork or historical data on tribes and donot engage existing anthropological and historical research, they have not influenced theRRC’s analysis in this report.

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