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Ban in SGK 12-CB- Chuong 3

Ban in SGK 12-CB- Chuong 3

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Published by: angelhaft on Sep 10, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Ch¬ng
Amin, aminoaxitvµ protein
C¸ lµ nguån protein phong phó
3
Amin lµ g× ? CÊu t¹ovµ tÝnh chÊt cña amin.
Amino axit lµ g× ?CÊu t¹o vµ tÝnh chÊtcña amino axit.
39
 
Kh¸i niÖm, cÊu tróc, tÝnh chÊt vµ vaitrß cña protein trong cuéc sèng.
S¬ lîc vÒ enzim vµaxit nucleic.
Bµi
9
 
Amin
BiÕt amin lµ g×, ph©n lo¹i vµ gäi tªn amin.
HiÓu c¸c tÝnh chÊt ®iÓn h×nh cña amin.
I. Kh¸i niÖm, ph©n lo¹i vµ danh ph¸p
1. Kh¸i niÖm, ph©n lo¹i
Khi thay thÕ nguyªn tö H trong ph©n tö NH
3
ng chi®rocacbon ta thu ®îc hîp chÊt amin.
 ThÝ dô : 
332
NH, CHNH, 
652
CHNH,
 
33
CHNHCH
,amoniac metylamin phenylamin ®imetylaminxiclohexylaminAmin thêng cã ®ång ph©n vÒ
m¹ch cacbon, vÒ vÞ trÝ cñanhãm chøc vµ vÒ bËc amin. ThÝ dô
:CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
, CH
3
CH
CH
2
NH
2
, CH
3
CH
2
CH
CH
3
CH
3
–N–CH
2
CH
3
Amin ®îc ph©n lo¹i theo hai c¸ch th«ng dông nhÊt :a)
Theo
 
gèc hi®rocacbon,
ta cã :
amin o
nh CH
3
NH
2
,C
2
H
5
NH
2
, ...,
amin th¬m
nh C
6
H
5
NH
2
, CH
3
C
6
H
4
NH
2
, ...b)
Theo
 
bËc cña amin
(tøc lµ theo sè nguyªn tö H trong ph©ntö NH
3
bÞ thay thÕ bëi gèc hi®rocacbon), ta cã :
amin bËc mét 
nh C
2
H
5
NH
2
,
amin bËc hai
nh CH
3
NH
CH
3
,
amin bËc ba
nh CH
3
N
CH
3
.
40
|3
CH
|2
NH
|3
CH
|3
CH
 
2. Danh ph¸p
 Tªn cña c¸c amin (B¶ng 4.1) thêng ®îc gäi theo danh ph¸p
gèc
− 
chøc
(gèc hi®rocacbon víi chøc amin) vµ mét sè cã
tªnriªng (tªn th«ng thêng)
.
B¶ng 4.1. Tªn cña mét vµi amin
ng thøc ut¹o Tªn gèc-chøc Tªn thay thÕTªn thêngCH
3
NH
2
Metyl aminmetanaminCH
3
CH
2
NH
2
Etyl aminetanaminCH
3
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
propyl aminpropan-1-aminCH
3
CH(CH
3
)NH
2
isopropylaminpropan-2-aminCH
3
NHC
2
H
5
etyl metylaminN-metyletanaminC
6
H
5
NH
2
phenyl aminbezenaminanilinH
2
N[CH
2
]
6
NH
2
hexan-1,6-®iamin
II. TÝnh chÊt vËt lÝ
Metylamin, ®imetylamin, trimetylamin vµ etylamin lµ nh÷ngchÊt khÝ, mïi khai khã chÞu, tan nhiÒu trong níc. C¸c amin cãph©n tö khèi cao h¬n lµ nh÷ng chÊt láng hoÆc r¾n,®é tantrong níc gi¶m dÇn theo chiÒu t¨ng cña ph©n tö khèi.Anilin lµ chÊt láng, kh«ng mµu, s«i ë 184
o
C, Ýt tan trong níc,nÆng h¬n níc. §Ó l©u trong kh«ng khÝ, anilin cã nhuèm mµu®en v× bÞ oxi ho¸.C¸c amin®Òu rÊt ®éc.
41

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