Heating systems may be classified as central or local.Central heatingMain article: Central heatingCentral heating is often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings.Such a system contains a central boiler, furnace or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air; piping or ductwork to distribute the heated fluid, and radiators to transfer this heat to theair. The term radiator in this context is misleading, since most heat transfer from the heatexchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls, or buried in the floor to give under-floor heating. When so mounted it is often referred to as"radiant heating".All but the simplest systems have a pump to circulate the water and ensure an equalsupply of heat to all the radiators. The heated water is often fed through another heatexchanger inside a storage cylinder to provide hot running water.Forced air systems send air through ductwork. During cool weather, the same ductwork can be reused for air conditioning. The forced air can be filtered or put through air cleaners. Contrary to fiction, most ducts cannot fit a human being as this would create a potential security liability.The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of theroom, typically next to the windows. Popular retail devices that direct vents away fromwindows -- to prevent "wasted" heat -- defeat this design parameter. Drafts contributemore to the subjective feeling of coldness than actual room temperature. Thus rather thanimproving the heating of a room/building, it is often more important to control the air leaks.The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans, who installed asystem of air ducts in walls and floors of public baths and private villas. The ducts werefed with hot air from a central fire.Energy EfficiencyWater heating is more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard many yearsago but since forced air systems can double for air conditioning, they are more popular nowadays. The most efficient central heating method is geothermal heating.Energy efficiency can be improved even more in central heating systems by introducingzoned heating. This allows a more granular application of heat similar to non-centralheating systems. Zones are controlled by multiple thermostats which, in water heatingsystems, control zone valves or, in forced air systems, control zone dampers inside thevents which selectively block the flow of air.