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Published by Ram

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Published by: Ram on Sep 10, 2009
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HVACHVAC ==High-voltage alternating current
HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or, occasionally, "H-VAK") is aninitialism/acronym that stands for "heating, ventilation and air-conditioning". This issometimes referred to as climate control.These three functions are closely interrelated, as they control the temperature andhumidity of the air within a building in addition to providing for smoke control,maintaining pressure relationships between spaces, and providing fresh air for occupants.In modern building designs, the design, installation and control systems of thesefunctions are integrated into a single "HVAC" system.In certain regions (e.g., UK), the term "Building Services" is also used and HVACEngineers are called Building Services Engineers. See CIBSE.The term air handler can mean a whole unit including the blower, heating and coolingelements, filter racks or chamber and dampers, but not including the ductwork throughthe building.Contents [hide]1 Heating1.1 Central heating1.2 Energy Efficiency2 Ventilation3 Displacement ventilation3.1 Natural ventilation3.2 Forced ventilation4 Ventilation issues in houses5 Ventilation Issues In Commerical and Industrial Buildings5.1 Roof Fans5.2 Boiler And Equipment Rooms6 Ventilation in construction7 Residential Ventilation checklist:8 Air-conditioning9 Thermostats10 See also11 External links[edit]Heating
Heating systems may be classified as central or local.[edit]Central heatingMain article: Central heatingCentral heating is often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings.Such a system contains a central boiler, furnace or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air; piping or ductwork to distribute the heated fluid, and radiators to transfer this heat to theair. The term radiator in this context is misleading, since most heat transfer from the heatexchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls, or  buried in the floor to give under-floor heating. When so mounted it is often referred to as"radiant heating".All but the simplest systems have a pump to circulate the water and ensure an equalsupply of heat to all the radiators. The heated water is often fed through another heatexchanger inside a storage cylinder to provide hot running water.Forced air systems send air through ductwork. During cool weather, the same ductwork can be reused for air conditioning. The forced air can be filtered or put through air cleaners. Contrary to fiction, most ducts cannot fit a human being as this would create a potential security liability.The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of theroom, typically next to the windows. Popular retail devices that direct vents away fromwindows -- to prevent "wasted" heat -- defeat this design parameter. Drafts contributemore to the subjective feeling of coldness than actual room temperature. Thus rather thanimproving the heating of a room/building, it is often more important to control the air leaks.The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans, who installed asystem of air ducts in walls and floors of public baths and private villas. The ducts werefed with hot air from a central fire.[edit]Energy EfficiencyWater heating is more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard many yearsago but since forced air systems can double for air conditioning, they are more popular nowadays. The most efficient central heating method is geothermal heating.Energy efficiency can be improved even more in central heating systems by introducingzoned heating. This allows a more granular application of heat similar to non-centralheating systems. Zones are controlled by multiple thermostats which, in water heatingsystems, control zone valves or, in forced air systems, control zone dampers inside thevents which selectively block the flow of air.[edit]
VentilationVentilation is the changing of air in any space in order to remove moisture, odors, smoke,heat, and airborne bacteria. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside aswell as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining healthy indoor air quality in a building. Methods for ventilating a buildingmay be divided into natural and forced types.[edit]Displacement ventilationAirflow in ventilated spaces generally can be classified by two different types; mixing (or dilution) ventilation and displacement ventilation. Mixing ventilation systems generallysupply air in a manner such that the entire room air is fully mixed. The cool supply air exits the outlet at high velocity, inducing room air to provide mixing and temperatureequalization. Since the entire room is fully mixed, temperature variations are small whilethe contaminant concentration is uniform throughout the entire room.Displacement-ventilation systems introduce air at low velocities which causes minimalinduction and mixing. The displacement outlets are usually located at or near the floor.The system utilizes buoyancy forces (generated by heat sources such as people, lighting,computers, electrical equipment, etc.) in a room to move contaminants and heat from theoccupied zone. By so doing, the air quality in the occupied zone is generally superior tothat achieved with mixing ventilation.Displacement ventilation presents an opportunity to improve both the thermal comfortand indoor air quality (IAQ) of the occupied space. Displacement ventilation takesadvantage of the difference in air density between an upper contaminated zone and alower clean zone. Cool air is supplied at low velocity into the lower zone. Convectionfrom heat sources creates vertical air motion into the upper zone where high level returnoutlets extract the air. In most cases these convection heat sources are also thecontamination sources, i.e. people or equipment, thereby carrying the contaminants up tothe upper zone, away from the occupants.Outlets are typically located at or near the floor level, and air is supplied directly into theoccupied zone. This supply air is spread over the entire floor and then rises as it is heated by the heat sources in the occupied zone. Returns are typically located at or close to theceiling and exhaust the warm contaminated room air.Since the conditioned air is supplied directly into the occupied space, supply air temperatures must be higher than mixing systems (usually above 63 deg F) to avoid cooltemperatures at the floor. By introducing the air at elevated supply air temperatures andlow outlet velocity a high level of thermal comfort can be provided with displacementventilation.

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