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Brain Gate

Brain Gate

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Published by ketakiksg

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Published by: ketakiksg on Sep 10, 2009
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04/19/2011

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BrainGate
is abrain implantsystem developed by the bio-tech companyCyberkineticsin 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience atBrown University. The devicewas designed to help those who have lost control of theirlimbs,or other bodily functions, such as patients withamyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) or spinal cord injury. Thecomputer chip, which is implanted into thebrain,monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.Currently the chip uses 96 hair-thinelectrodes that sense the electro-magnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent anddecoded using a program, which can move a robotic arm, a computer cursor, or even awheelchair. According to the Cyberkinetics' website, three patients have been implantedwith the BrainGate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has aspinal cord injury, whilst another has advancedALS.In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Braingate arrayis also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this featurewould be for aneurologistto study seizure patterns in a patient withepilepsy. In 2009, a monkey was using a device very similar to BrainGate to control a robotic arm.
The concept of using thought to move a robotic device, a wheelchair, a prosthetic, or a computer was once strictly the stuff of science fiction, but no longer. BrainGate™ collects and analyzes the brainwaves of individuals with pronounced physicaldisabilities, turning thoughts into actions. The potential to better communicate, interact, and improve people’s way of life isabout to explode.Years of advanced research by world-renowned experts at prestigious universities—including Brown, Harvard, Emory, MIT,Columbia, and the University of Utah—has resulted in the development of BrainGate™, a life-changing technology anddevice that gives renewed hope to paraplegics, quadriplegics and others suffering from spinal cord injuries and strokes.Eventually, it has the potential to revolutionize the way all of our brains work.BrainGate has been featured on broadcasts such as 60 Minutes and in publications including Popular Mechanics, Nature andWired.
 
 BrainGate is a path to a better way of life for severely motor-impaired individuals. Throughyears of advanced research, BrainGate enables these people with the ability to communicate,interact and function through thought. (view video)
 
BrainGate's mission is to further the advancement of this life-changing technology to promotewider adoption to help impaired individuals communicate and interact with society. For instance,the Cyberkenetics BrainGate Neural Interface is currently the subject of a pilot clinical trial being conducted under an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) from the FDA. The system isdesigned to restore functionality for a limited, immobile group of severely motor-impairedindividuals. It is expected that people using the BrainGate System will employ a personalcomputer as the gateway to a range of self-directed activities. These activities may extend beyond typical computer functions (e.g., communication) to include the control of objects in theenvironment such as a telephone, a television and lights.
BrainGate's mission is to further the advancement of this life-changing technology to promote wideradoption to help impaired individuals communicateand interact with society. For instance, theCyberkenetics BrainGate Neural Interface is currentlythe subject of a pilot clinical trial being conductedunder an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE)from the FDA. The system is designed to restorefunctionality for a limited, immobile group of severelymotor-impaired individuals. It is expected that peopleusing the BrainGate System will employ a personalcomputer as the gateway to a range of self-directedactivities. These activities may extend beyond typicalcomputer functions (e.g., communication) to includethe control of objects in the environment such as atelephone, a television and lights.
BrainGate is based on technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons.BrainGate consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device thatanalyzes brain signals. The principle of operation behind the BrainGate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands andlegs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user analternate "BrainGate pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who havethe ability to move their hands use a mouse.There is development underway on BrainGate to potentially provide limb movement to peoplewith severe motor disabilities. The goal of this development program would be to allow theseindividuals to one day use their own arms and hands again. Limb movement developments arecurrently at the research stage and are not available for use with the existing BrainGate System.In addition, products are in development to allow for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheelchair. In the future, the BrainGate System could be used by those individualswhose injuries are less severe. Next generation products may be able to provide an individualwith the ability to control devices that allow breathing, bladder and bowel movements. CurrentlyThe BrainGate Neural Interface System is an investigational device and is not approved for sale.However it is available through a clinical study.
The BrainGate Neural Interface creates a direct link between a person's brain and acomputer, translating neural activity into action. Matthew Nagle, without use of his limbsbut fitted with a BrainGate, can now play a videogame or change channels on TV using onlyhis mind. Here's how it works.
 
- Greta Lorge
 
1. The chip:
A 4-millimeter square silicon chip studded with 100 hair-thin microelectrodes isembedded in Nagle's primary motor cortex - the region of the brain responsible for controllingmovement.
2. The connector:
When Nagle thinks "move cursor up and left" (toward email icon), his corticalneurons fire in a distinctive pattern; the signal is transmitted through the pedestal plug attached to hisskull.
3. The converter:
The signal travels to a shoebox-sized amplifier mounted on Nagle's wheelchair,where it's converted to optical data and bounced by fiber-optic cable to a computer.
4. The computer:
BrainGate learns to associate patterns of brain activity with particular imaginedmovements - up, down, left, right - and to connect those movements to a cursor.
or my term paper, I researched on Cyber Terrorism. I believe that Cyber Terrorism is a big problem in our society andmay even be a worldwide problem for all humanity today. I want to do my term paper on Cyber Terrorism because Ihad some personal experience with this sort of terrorism. About a two years ago, I encountered a Hacker on AmericaOnline. I opened an unknown message in my mailbox that was titled "Free Nude Teens". Then about a couple weekslater, we received all sorts of bills that had to be paid. My father received bills for many different things such aselectronics, clothes, and other items that had been purchased under our account on the Internet. My father was sopissed off because he thought that my brothers or I had purchased all those items. So we called the Company andfound that our computer had been hacked into. And the so called hacker purchased items on our account number.And we found that the hacker gained entry by a message that I had open!ed . So we ended up paying only athousand dollars out of almost six-thousand dollars worth of goods purchased on America Online. I want to do myresearch paper on Cyber Terrorism because I want to stress to people that this is a big problem and will becCyber Terrorism can come in the form of misinformation. Just that one sentence says a lot about how unstoppablethe force of Cyber Terrorism is. 1) All accounts should have passwords and the passwords should be unusual anddifficult to guess. But the proposal for a National Homeland Security Agency is sure to stir controversy, because it willtake resources away from some well-entrenched agencies. I fully agree that hacking is a criminal offense and shouldbe prosecuted. And Bush administration officials say they will look closely at the commission's recommendations. Butthe deputy national security adviser, said agencies simply need better cooperation in the fight against terrorism, noanother new agency. It still is an important stride in the fight against hackers. Although, if hacking is done, and ahacker is caught, the consequences are sometimes not that wonderful. There is a number of things that our country isrealizing about Cyber terrorism. They even have chat rooms for hackers to share their hacking knowledge with eachother. It is hard for even the best of hackers to break into a computer due to the strict security and punishment. 3)Check with venders for upgrades and patches.The Internet is, literally, a network of networks. It is made of thousands of interconnected networks spanning theglobe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to humble PCsin people's homes and offices. Despite the recent publicity, the Internet is not a new thing. Its roots lie in a collectionof computers that were linked together in the 1970s to form the US Department of Defense's communications

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