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History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs

History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs

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Published by: hadil7997 on Sep 10, 2009
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A
HISTORY OF EGYPT
UNDER THE PHARAOHS
 DERIVED ENTIRELY FROM THE MONUMENTS 
BY HENRY BRUSCH-BEY
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMANBy the Late HENRY DANBY SEYMOUR COMPLETED AND EDITED BYPHILIP SMITHIN TWO VOLUMES—VOL. ILONDON 1879
DEDICATEDTOHIS HIGHNESS ISMAEL PASHAKHEDIVE OF EGYPTWITH MOST RESPECTFUL GRATITUDEBY THE AUTHOR 
 BY HENRY BRUSCH-BEY 
 
HEAD OF A WOODEN STATUE OF AN EGYPTIAN[vii]
EDITOR'S PREFACE
The History of Egypt now offered to the English reader is distinguished in two respects fromthe long train of able and interesting works, which, in opening to the last and the presentgenerations the life and story of the Old Egyptians, as by a new revelation, have at the sametime thrown a clear and vivid light on many portions of Holy Scripture. The work is as uniquein the competence of its Author as in the originality of its design.After all that has been done since the time when Young and Champollion discovered the keyto the vast treasures of contemporary records which till then were a sealed book, it stillremained for some competent scholar to undertake the Herculean task of weaving thetestimony of the Egyptian records into a consecutive history of the long line of PharaonicDynasties, derived solely from these ancient and authentic sources^ and free of all colouringand intermixture from the traditions given at second-hand by the classic writers,[viii]whichfind their proper place elsewhere. No second-hand knowledge of the monuments and papyri,however learned or extensive, can be a sufficient qualification for the full and accurate
 
rendering of their testimony. Nothing can suffice, short of that kind of scholarly instinct whichis the first of a life-long study and comprehensive knowledge of the whole subject matter, based on a personal examination of the original records. These are the qualifications acquiredand matured in the mind of Dr. Henry Brugsch-Bey, during his long residence in Egypt andhis travels through the length and breadth of the land, with the express object of studying themonuments; qualifications which are shared alone by his friend and colleague, M. Mariette-Bey.A complete account of the origin and plan of the work is given in the Author's Preface, but itmay not be superfluous to indicate some points of special novelty and interest, difficult as it isto select them from the whole mass of new and important matter. The Author's long and deepstudy of Egyptian antiquity in all its bearings has enabled him to draw a true picture of thecharacter and life of the people, the persons and court of the great Pharaohs, the revolutionsindicated by the various Dynasties, the hierarchy of the State, and the details of administration, down to the text of official despatches, the names and works of artist., andmen of letters, and the relations of Egypt to the[ix]neighbouring nations at each criticalepoch of her history. He has set in the clearest light many deeply interesting subjects, whichhave hitherto been only straggling out of obscurity. Such, for example, is the large element of Semitic population in the Delta, and its influence on the Egyptian life and language, inconnection with the history of the Shepherd Kings and the relations of the Pharaohs of the Nineteenth Dynasty to their Hebrew bondsmen. The position and precise office of Joseph, thename, time, and works of the Pharaoh of the oppression, and the Exodus of the Israelites, nowtake a definite place in Egyptian history, and the localities named in Scripture are determined by evidence of surprising clearness. Such also is the case with the revolutions by which the proud hue of Ramses was supplanted by the haughty priests of Thebes, and these driven out,in their turn, by a real Assyrian conquest of Egypt, now first made known from contemporaryinscriptions. The cuneiform inscriptions of Sennacherib^s grandson, and the hieroglyphicrecords of the Ethiopian conquerors at Mount Barkal, fill up the story of that interesting period, hinted at in the 'Dodecarchy' of Herodotus, when Lower Egypt, divided among a hostof petty kings and satraps (whose very names are now recovered) was a shuttle-cock betweenAssyria and Ethiopia, till we learn the true meaning of its union under Psammetichus. Theseare but a few points of the history now first put together from the[x]monuments, down to thethanksgiving of a priest for his preservation in 'the battle of the Ionians' under Alexander, and'the rout of the Asiatic,' Darius Codomannus.The present translation of Dr. Brugsch's German original
1
comes before the English reader with some claims for his indulgence. Undertaken by the late Mr. Henry Danby Seymour as alabour of love, it was left incomplete at his lamented death, when nearly all the First Volumewas printed, and the translation of the Second was carried to the end of Chapter XVI. TheEditor has finished the translation, and corrected the press for the whole of the SecondVolume. He has also carefully revised the First Volume; and, as two are proverbially better than one, he has naturally found some points in which correction or improvement appeared tohim essential; and such necessary alterations will furnish an apology for a somewhat large listof 'Errata.' For the first four chapters, which had been translated from the French before the publication of Dr. Brugsch's new work, the Editor has substituted a fresh translation from theGerman. For valuable advice on points of difficulty, the Editor is indebted to his old andesteemed friend, Dr. Leonhard Schmitz.[xi]In rendering into English Dr. Brugsch's German translations of the Egyptian texts, therehas been a two-fold difficulty, chiefly from the obscurity of the originals, and partly also from

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