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Chapter Three Terms, Settling the Northern Colonies, APUSH

Chapter Three Terms, Settling the Northern Colonies, APUSH

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Published by: Julie on Sep 11, 2009
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Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies
John Calvin:John Calvin:John Calvin:John Calvin:From Geneva, Switzerland. Elaborated on Martin Luther’s ideas, resulting inCalvinism becoming the dominant religion of New England Puritans and otherAmerican settlers, such as the Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, andcommunicants of the Dutch Reformed Church.Spelled out basic doctrine in
Institutes of the Christian Religion 
in 1536.God was all-powerful, all-good, and all-knowing
as a result, he knew whowas going to heaven and going to hell.Humans were weak and wicked.Good works were irrelevant.The “Elect”The “Elect”The “Elect”The “Elect”::::According to Calvinism, certain souls had been destined for eternal bliss.However, the elect could not be sure of their predetermined salvation. Thus,Calvinists sought, in themselves and others, signs of “conversion” or the receiptof God’s free gift of saving grace.Conversion was thought to be an intense, identifiable personal experience inwhich God revealed to the elect their heavenly destiny. Afterwards, they wereexpected to lead “sanctified” lives to demonstrate that they were of the “visiblesaints.”PredestinationPredestinationPredestinationPredestination::::“Predestination:” one’s fate was already decided upon birth. Some werepredestined for the infernal fires.“VisibleVisibleVisibleVisible Saints”Saints”Saints”Saints”::::People who had felt the stirrings of grace in their souls and could demonstrateits presence to their fellow Puritans.Most devout Puritans thought only “visible saints” should be admitted to churchmembership. However, Church of England enrolled all subjects, whether “saints”or “damned.” As a result, Separatists vowed to break away from Church ofEngland.PuritansPuritansPuritansPuritans::::Henry VIII’s break with the Roman Catholic Church prompted some Englishreligious reformers, the Puritans, to undertake a total purification of EnglishChristianity.Calvinism, with message of stark but reassuring order in the divine plan, fed onthe social unrest of people in commercially depressed woolen districts, Calvinismalso provided spiritual comfort to economically disadvantaged.SeparatistsSeparatistsSeparatistsSeparatists::::Separatists were unhappy with unrestricted church membership. They vowedto break away from the Church of England. King James I threatened toharass the more bothersome Separatists out of the land.Most famous congregation of Separatists fled England for Holland in 1608.After 12 years, negotiated with Virginia Company and secured rights to settle.
Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies
Mayflower CompactMayflower CompactMayflower CompactMayflower Compact::::Pilgrim leaders drew up Mayflower Compact prior to disembarking. Not actually a constitution, but set precedent for later written constitutions.Simple agreement to form a crude government and submit to the will of themajority under the regulations agreed upon.Signed by 41 adult males.New England Town MeetingsNew England Town MeetingsNew England Town MeetingsNew England Town Meetings::::Genuine self-government, as adult male settlers would assemble for open-discussion and make their own laws.Charter Colony Charter Colony Charter Colony Charter Colony::::Charter colonies were granted by the Crown to an individual or to a company.In 1629, non-Separatist Puritans secured a royal charter to form theMassachusetts Bay Colony.Newcomers brought their charter with them and used it as a kind ofconstitution. Denied that they wanted to separate from the Church ofEngland, only from its impurities.Other examples of charter colonies were Connecticut, Virginia, and RhodeIsland.William BradfordWilliam BradfordWilliam BradfordWilliam Bradford::::Prominent Pilgrim leader and a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek,Latin, French, and Dutch.Chosen governor thirty times in the annual elections.Feared that independent, non-Puritan settlers might corrupt the settlement.“Thus out of small beginnings greater things have been produced by His handthat made all things of nothing, and gives being to all things that are; and, asone small candle may light a thousand, so the light here kindled hath shone untomany, yea in some sort to our whole nation.” –
Of Plymouth Plantation 
 The “Great Migration”The “Great Migration”The “Great Migration”The “Great Migration”::::In the “Great Migration” of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England.Only about 20,000 came to Massachusetts and not all were Puritans.Many were attracted to warm and fertile West Indies, especially the sugar-richisland of Barbados.JohnJohnJohnJohn Winthrop Winthrop Winthrop Winthrop::::Well-to-do pillar of English society, became Massachusetts’ first governor.Successful attorney and manor lord in England, believed he had a “calling” fromGod to lead the new religious experiment.Served as governor or deputy governor for 19 years.Was one of the leaders who helped Massachusetts prosper.“We shall be as a city upon a hill,” a beacon to humanity.FreemenFreemenFreemenFreemen::::Adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations, which in time came tobe called collectively the Congregational Church.Unchurched men remained voteless in elections.
Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies
Congregational ChurchCongregational ChurchCongregational ChurchCongregational Church::::See “Freemen.”Protestant EthicProtestant EthicProtestant EthicProtestant Ethic::::Puritans shared in the “Protestant ethic,” which involved serious commitment towork and to engagement in worldly pursuits.Anne HutchinsonAnne HutchinsonAnne HutchinsonAnne Hutchinson::::Intelligent, strong-willed, and talkative woman, mother of fourteen children.She believed in an extreme interpretation of predestination, claiming that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother toobey the law of either God or man. Brought to trial in 1638, was able to bamboozle clerical inquisitors for days,eventually boasted that she had come to her beliefs through a direct revelationfrom God = higher heresy.Puritan magistrates banished her. She set out on foot for Rhode Island, finally moved to New York, where she and all but one of her household were killed by Native Americans.AntinomianismAntinomianismAntinomianismAntinomianism::::“against the law,” claims that a holy life is no sure sign of salvation and thatthe truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man.Roger WilliamsRoger WilliamsRoger WilliamsRoger Williams::::Popular Salem minister with radical ideas. Extreme Separatist and hounded hisfellow clergymen to break with the corrupt Church of England.Challenged the legality of the Bay Colony’s charter, which he condemned forexpropriating the land from the Indians without fair compensation.Denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior, whichundermined the Puritan idea of government.Williams was found guilty of spreading “new and dangerous opinions” andbanished in 1635.Fled to Rhode Island and built a Baptist church, probably the first in America.Established complete freedom of religion, even for Jews and CatholicsNo oaths regarding religious beliefs.Rhode Island became more liberal than any of the other English settlementsand more advanced than most Old World communities.First exercised simple manhood suffrage, although property qualificationscame in later on.Fundamental Orders of Conn.Fundamental Orders of Conn.Fundamental Orders of Conn.Fundamental Orders of Conn.::::In 1639, settlers drafted in open meeting a trailblazing document known as theFundamental Orders. Was in effect a modern constitution, which established aregime democratically controlled by the “substantial” citizens.

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