QUANTITY OR EXTENSION OF THE PREDICATERule 1:
The predicate of an affirmative proposition is generally particular.Exceptions are predicates that are: 1) singulars, 2) essential definitions,and 3) essential properties. These are universal or in full extension
The predicate of a negative proposition is always universal or in full extension.
An immediate inference is a process of reasoning which consists in passing directly fromone proposition, without the aid of a second proposition or a third term, called medium,to a new proposition but not to a new truth.
Two main types:
Logical Opposition and Eduction
is a repugnance or relation existing between a pair of propositionwhich have the same subject and predicate but they differ in quality, quantity or both inquantity and quality.
is the formulation of a new proposition, either by interchanging the subject and predicate and/or by the use or omission of negatives.It is also known as
. It is the method of rephrasing the truthor falsity expressed in a given proposition.L
OGICAL OPPOSITION OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONSCONTRARIES –
relationship between A and E propositions
relationship between I and O propositions
A and O, E and I
A and I, E and O
Rules for Contradictories
If one is true, the other is false.If one is false, the other is true