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Logic (Immediate Inference)

# Logic (Immediate Inference)

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Logic inference
Logic inference

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06/05/2013

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QUANTITY OR EXTENSION OF THE PREDICATERule 1:
The predicate of an affirmative proposition is generally particular.Exceptions are predicates that are: 1) singulars, 2) essential definitions,and 3) essential properties. These are universal or in full extension
Rule 2:
The predicate of a negative proposition is always universal or in full extension.
IMMEDIATE INFERENCE
An immediate inference is a process of reasoning which consists in passing directly fromone proposition, without the aid of a second proposition or a third term, called medium,to a new proposition but not to a new truth.
Two main types:
Logical Opposition and Eduction
Logical Opposition
is a repugnance or relation existing between a pair of propositionwhich have the same subject and predicate but they differ in quality, quantity or both inquantity and quality.
Eduction
is the formulation of a new proposition, either by interchanging the subject and predicate and/or by the use or omission of negatives.It is also known as
equivalence
or
equipollence
. It is the method of rephrasing the truthor falsity expressed in a given proposition.L
OGICAL OPPOSITION OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONSCONTRARIES –
relationship between A and E propositions
SUBCONTRARIES –
relationship between I and O propositions
A and O, E and I
SUBALTERNS –
A and I, E and O
If one is true, the other is false.If one is false, the other is true

Rules for Contraries
If one is true the other is false.If one is false, the other is doubtful.
Rules for Subcontraries
If one is false, the other is true.If one is true, the other is doubtful
Rules for Subalterns
If the universal is true, the particular is true. If the universal is false, the particular isdoubtful.If the particular is true, the universal is doubtful. If the particular is false, the universal isfalse.
Types of EductionCONVERSION
- the process of reformulating the truth of a proposition byinterchanging the subject and predicate of a given proposition without changing itsquality.The original proposition is called “convertend.”The new proposition is called “converse.”Rules:1.Interchange subject and predicate2.The convertend or original form must be in its logical form.3.Retain the quality of the proposition4.Do not over-extend the term.Ex. Some seminarians are prayerful – Some prayerful people are seminarians.No atheist is a believer of God – No believer of God is an atheistAll beautiful girls are attractive – Some attractive (people) are beautiful girls.
OBVERSION
- The method of rephrasing the truth of a given proposition by changingthe quality of the copula.Obvertend – the original propositionObverse – the new proposition

Rules/Procedure:1.Change the quality of the copula.2.Change the quality of the predicate term.3.Retain the quantity.ExamplesAll human beings are rational – No human being is non-rational (irrational). No criminal is moral – All criminals are non-moral (immoral).Some leaders are responsible – Some leaders are not non-responsible (irresponsible).Some lawmakers are not ethical – Some lawmakers are non-ethical (unethical).
CONTRAPOSITION
- The method of rephrasing the truth of a given proposition bycombining the processes of obversion and conversion.
Partial Contraposition
– applicable to A, E, and O propositions.Rules:1.Obvert the contraponend (original proposition)2.Convert the ObverseExamples:All Christians are believers of Christ – No non-believer of Christ is a ChristianStep 1 – No Christian is a non-believer of Christ.Step 2 – No non-believer of Christ is a Christian No seminarian is stupid – Some non-stupid people are seminarians.Some laws are not beneficial to citizens – Some (things) non-beneficial to citizens arelaws.
Complete Contraposition
– applicable to A, E, and O propositionsRules/Procedures:1.Obvert.2.Convert the Obverse3.Obvert the converse.