own, having been opened to the public worldwide. It is the
. Its appeal isuniversal, serving its original intent as a resource-sharing medium extending waybeyond the boundaries of universities and now including a universal messagingservice called
(electronic mail).Some may argue that telecommunications with all its possible facets is theworld’s largest business. We do not take sides on this issue. What we do wish todo is to impart to the reader a technical knowledge and appreciation of telecom-munication networks from a system viewpoint. By
we mean how onediscipline can interact with another to reach a certain end objective. If we do itright, that interaction will be synergistic and will work for us; if not, it may work against us in reaching our goal.Therefore, a primary concern of this book is to describe the development of the PSTN and enterprise network and discuss why they are built the way they areand how they are evolving. The basic underpinning of the industry was telephoneservice. That has now changed. The greater portion of the trafﬁc carried todayis data trafﬁc, and all trafﬁc is in a digital format of one form or another. Weinclude wireless/cellular and “broadband” as adjuncts of the PSTN.Telecommunication engineering has traditionally been broken down into twobasic segments: transmission and switching. This division was most apparent inconventional telephony. Transmission deals with the delivery of a quality elec-trical signal from point
. Let us say that switching connects
, rather than to
. When the ﬁrst edition of this book was published, transmis-sion and switching were two very distinct disciplines. Today, that distinction hasdisappeared, particularly in the enterprise network. As we proceed through thedevelopment of this text, we must deal with both disciplines and show in laterchapters how the dividing line separating them has completely disappeared.
2 THE SIMPLE TELEPHONE CONNECTION
The common telephone as we know it today is a device connected to the outsideworld by a pair of wires. It consists of a handset and its cradle with a signalingdevice, consisting of either a dial or push buttons. The handset is made up of two electroacoustic transducers, the earpiece or receiver and the mouthpiece ortransmitter. There is also a sidetone circuit that allows some of the transmittedenergy to be fed back to the receiver.The transmitter or mouthpiece converts acoustic energy into electric energy bymeans of a carbon granule transmitter. The transmitter requires a direct-current(dc) potential, usually on the order of 3–5 V, across its electrodes. We callthis the
, and in modern telephone systems it is supplied over the line(central battery) from the switching center and has been standardized at
48 V dc.Current from the battery ﬂows through the carbon granules or grains when thetelephone is lifted from its cradle or goes “off hook.”
When sound impinges
The opposite action of “off hook” is “on hook”—that is, placing the telephone back in its cradle,thereby terminating a connection.