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Masonry Construction Manual - Building Science

Masonry Construction Manual - Building Science

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Published by: SAVANYA on Sep 11, 2009
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Buildingcience
2.6.1Surfaceesistancesn m2K V
Buildingcience
JoachimAchtziger
ThermalnsulationThe hermalnsulationfa buildings ntendedto contributeowardshygienic ndcomfort-ablenternallimate,hich s notdetrimentalto theheaithfhe occupants ndusersofhebuilding, ndathesameimeprotectshestructuregainst he climate-relatedffectsfmoisture ndheir onsequences.heenergyrequiredorheatingn hewinter ndmeasurestoprovidenacceptablenternallimaten hesummerithoutheuseof air conditioningorcoolingmustbeoptimizednconjunctioniththe necessaryhermalnsuiation nd energy-savingmeasures. hesedays,hermal nsula-tion o a buildings notusta means f savingenergy utanmportantlementn an environ-mentalrotection rogramme.herefore,reducing missionsfpollutantsrombuildingheatingystemss anmportant spect.Besides avingheating ostsor he user,anincreasinglymportantactor,evermorepre-ciousenergyanduel esources re alsospared.The ConstructionroductsDirective13],hemost mportant lementn he creationf aEuropean ingleMarketorhe constructionindustry,cknowledgeshe mportancefthermal nsulation nd defineshe areaof"Energyconomy ndheat etention"s oneof sixessentialequirements.nhewhole,thecostsand adaptationroblemsf Euro-peanstandardizationre outweighedyhebenefits,heeffectsf theseareo:.harmonizehemarkets,.createuniformramework onditionsithintheEU,'attainuropeanupplyonditions,'set uniformvaluation ndesting tandards,.setuniform tandardsfqualityecognizedthroughouturope; ifferenttandardsn dif-ferent ountries anbe assessedccordingtoasystem fgradedperformancelasses.Theobjectivef heprincipalocumentEner-gyeconomynd heatetention"s, aking ntoaccountheocation,o keepdownhe con-sumption fenergyelated o the useof abuildingnd ts echnicalystems, ndoguaranteen adequatef standardf hermalcomfortor he occupants,hisencompassesand standardizesheollowingmainactors:.location, rientationndormof he structure,.physical ropertiesfmaterials ndcompo-nentsusedor he structure,'the designof systemsor he echnicaler-vices,.performanceeaturesor he componentsfthesesystems,nd.the behaviourf heusersf hebuilding.Thecombinationfplanningnddesigntan-dards,standardsithgenerallycknowledgeddesigndata,standardsor hemeasurementfcomponentsndmaterialsswellashosecoveringroductssshownnaverymuchsimplifiedndgeneralizedorm nfig.2.6.2.Thequalityfa buildingn energyermsscalculatedccordingo a designtandard.Furtherulesarenecessaryor assessinghethermalerformancefpartsof a building,suchasroomsadjacenthe soil,oomsn heroofspaceorpartsof the buildingwith ower'temperatures,s wellasstandardsor specify-ing hehermalerformancefcomponentsandheirnon-constantehaviourponheatingandcooling.ables fvalues rmeasurementsof componentsreparedccordingo estab-lished ulesserveor he calculationf rans-missioneat ossesroma buildingnvelopeandgivenheatgains.Fufther, omponentsanbe assessedccordingotheirconstituents,basedon thepropertiesfhe materialsemployed.herefore,complete,oordinatedstandardizedonceptrom heproductproper-tieso inal nergyequirements availableordescribingheperformancefa building.nGermany,IN4108 emainss heNationalApplicationocumentnd hepublicationdescribingationalequirements.heirstnationalmeasuresor savingenergyn heheating f buildingsereestablishedithinthe scopeoftheEnergy-savingsct of1976,whiched o he1977 hermalnsulationctandtssubsequentevisionsn1982and1995.ThenewEnergy-savingsct of2001hashepotentialo achievefurther0%savingnenergyn heheating f buildings.completeenergylanningoncepts availableor hedesign f buildings,akingntoaccounteat-ing systemsnd anassessmentf he energycarrier.
Directionofheat lowHorizontalDownwardsR" 0.100.130.170,04
160
 
Thermalnsulation
Heat ransfer,thermal insulationparameters,terms
Heat ransfer an akeolacen he ormof con-ductionnsolid,iquid ndgaseousmedia,andn he ormof radiationn ransparentmaterialsndvacuum.nbuildingmaterials,heattransfers expressed y thepropertyfthermal onductivity.Thermalconductivity.specifieshe heatlow n Wpassinghrough1 m2of a1 m thick ayern t h when he em-perature radientn hedirectionf theheatflow s 1 K. The ower he hermal onductivity,the better s he hermalnsulationor agiventhicknessfmaterial.he hermalnsulationcapacityf a componentscharacterizedyIhe thermalesistanceR, ltisdeterminedbydividinghe hickness fhe ayer oncerned(inm) by he material'shermal onductivity.(inWmK).Multi-layeromponentsequire hevalue f each ayer o be calculatedeparatelyaccordingo this method.he otalofthe ndi-vidual aluesiveshe hermalesistancefor hecompleteomponent.he higher hethermalesistance,he better s he hermalinsulation.To determinehe hermal ransmittancethrough component,e alsoneed o knowthe nternal nd external urtaceesisfance",andR"".Thesurfaceesistances heresis-tanceof he boundaryayerofair o the rans-ferofheat rom he nternal ir othecompo-nentand rom his o the external.air.hesur-faceesistancesregenerallytandardizedaccordingo the orientation fhecomponent(vertical,orizontal)nd he external ircircu-lationunrestricted,entilated, otventilated)asgivenn able2,6.1.heyhavebeendeter- minedora degreeof emissionsrom he sur-faceof e=0.9 anda wind soeedn=4 m/s attheexternalurface. he otalof allresistances-those f he ayers f the componentnd hesurface esistancesfheboundaryayers fair-is the total hermalesistanceR- whichhecomplete omponent pplieso resist helowof heat. heeciprocalfhisvalue s the ther-mal ransmittance-the characteristicari-able or he hermalnsulationf a buildingcomponent.he U-values undamentalorcalculatingheheatingequirementf a build-ing. hesmallerhe U-value,hebetters hethermalnsulation.hecalculationf heher-mal esistancefsingle- nd multi-layerom-oonents s wellas he U-valuesshownschematicallyn 2.6.3, hecalculationf he U-value or comoonentsadeJromeveralneighbouringectionswithdifferenthermalconductivitiess dealtwith n hesectionnti-tledThermalridges".he mathematicalassessmentf heat ransfer ndemperaturegradientsn componentss arelatively ifficultproblemepending nimeandgeometry.Therefore,o simplifyhework weassumeta-tionary,.e.constant,emperaturesn bothsidesof he components wellas a one-dimensionaleat lowacrosshe hickness f
2.6.2 Diagram frelationship etweenmaterials,omponentsnd designstandardsor assessinguildingsn ermsofenergyperformance2.6.3 Calculation fthermal esistance ndhermal ransmittancealues or single-andmulti-layerasonrycomponentsTabularalueslvlethods f calculationMethodsofmeasurementFabricatedonslte
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ConstructionSketchofprincipleEquationThermalesistanceSinle-layeromponent_o
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Thermal esistancelvlulti-layeromponenl
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Thermal ransmittanceSingle- rmulti-layercomponent
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Buildingcience
Expandedlay concrete
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2.6.4Thermal onductivityf dry expandedclay and expandedshaleconcrete ampleswith and without arious quartzsand additions y volumeof totalaggregate ontent%)n relation ogrossdensityaverageempera-ture10"C), fterW.SchLlle, iesecke nd Reichardt195]Expandedhaleconcrete
thecomponent.hisapproachsgenerallyuf-ficientlydequateorwinter onditionsithpermanentlyeated nteriors nd constantowtemperaturesutside, swellasorcalculatinga meanheatossveralongereriodfime.At equilibrium,heheat low<D=UxA(OiO")passeshrough n externalomponentithanareaAon onesideof which heres nternalirat a temperature iand onhe other, heresexternal ir at atemperature e.Therefore,hethermalransmittance is criticalor he rans-mission eatoss hroughhecomponent.However,hegraphicepresentationf he U-value nig.2.6.8 evealshatonly light improvementsrepossibleeyondcertainthickness f component.hisnon-lineare-havioureads o hesituationf ncreasingcosisor moreand morensulation aving versmaller nergy-savingffects.hevariables,symbols ndunits ecessaryorassessinghethermalerformancefhe building nvelopearegivenn able2.6.6. urther etailsrecon-tained n DINEN SO7345andhe espectiveDarts f DIN4108.
Thermal conductivity of buildingmaterials
With heexceptionf verydensestone,build-ing materials reporouso someextent.heycontain ir-filledoids f various izesnvari-ousarrangements,ndhese anhave sig-nificant ffectonhe ransfer fheat.The her-malconductivityfmasonry epends n:.the hermal onductivityfhesolid on-stituents,.theporosityrgross/bulkensity,.thenature, izeandarrangement f hepores,'the radiationropertiesf he boundaryallsof hevoids,'temperature,and.thewaterormoisture ontent.As the hermal onductivityf he materialunder bservationepends n heemperaturewithints ange f application,orbuildingur-posesallhermal onductivityalues re elat-ed to a mean emperaturef 10"Csohatuneouivocalomparisonsanbemade.Forthesameeason,materialarametersrespecifiedor he drystateof he material,nitial-ly without aking ntoaccounthe act hatmoisturencreaseshe hermal onductivity.Table .6,5rovidesnoverview fheorderof magnitude fhe hermal onductivitiesfsolidmaterialssed o manufactureuildingand hermal nsulationaterials. aterialsithmainly rystallineomponentsxhibithigherthermal onductivityhan hosewithvitreous rlime-basedomponents.or nstance,headdition fquartzand o concreter mortarhasa noticeably etrimentalffectonhe her-malconductivity.easurementsfconcrete
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10001100 12001300 1400 1500 1600 1700Bulkdensitykg/m3)2.6.5Orderof magnitudef thermal onductivity(WmK)of solidconstituentsf buildingand ther-mal nsulationmaterials,fterJ.S.Cammerer29]Inorganicuildinglra!glq!sCrystallineperpendicularo crystalaxisparallelo crystalaxisQuaftziteLimestone, arble,graniteBasalt, eldspar,andstoneAmorphousolidifiedmellssuch asblast urnace ]-agndglasses0.7 o 1.2NaturalrqaniCsubstances0.3 o 0.40.16 o 0,352.6.7Thermalonductivity f buildingmaterials
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1200 1300 1400 15002.6,6Variables. vmbolsand unitsused n hermalperformance___Phvsical ariableSvmbol Unit4.7 o 7.Oto 1461.6o 4,0
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W/mKm'?K,AiVm2K.AiVm,KAVm2K,\NWlmzKW/m2J,4<gKkg/m3mm2m3kgTemperatureThermal onductivityThermal esistanceInternalurface esistanceExternal urface esistanceTotal hermal esistance(airto-airesistance)Thermal ransmittanceHeat lowHeatlow rateSpecificheatcapacityGross/bulk ensityThicknessAreaVolumelvlass
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162

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