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Neuro Nursing Handouts-JM

Neuro Nursing Handouts-JM



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Published by: jm_pocsidio8213 on Sep 11, 2009
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NEURO NURSINGBy: JOHN MARK B. POCSIDIOGIVEN FREE BY THE LECTURERTHE NERVOUS SYSTEMThe function of the nervous system is to control all motor, sensory,autonomic
, cognitive
, and behavioral activities.The nervous system has approximately 10 million sensory neurons500,000 motor neurons that control the muscles and glands.The brain itself contains more than 20 billion nerve cellsNervous SystemCNSbrain and spinal cordPNScranial nerve and spinal nerveANSsympa and paraThe NeuronFUNCTIONAL UNITdendrites – receive neural msgs& transmit towards cell bodyaxon – transmits neural msgsaway from cell bodycell body – contains nucleus,mitochondria, & other organellesmyelin & cellular sheathproduced by Schwann cellsnodes of RanvierTYPES OF NEURONSSensory neurons typically have a long dendriteand short axon, carry messages fromsensory receptors
central nervous system. Motor neurons have a long axon and short dendrites, transmit messagesfromcentral nervous system
muscles (or to glands).Interneurons are found only in the central nervous system where theyconnect neuron to neuron.Afferent neuronsFrom tissues and organs into the CNS (sensory neurons.)Efferent neuronsFrom CNS to the effector cells (motor neurons)
NEUROTRANSMITTERSNeurotransmitters communicate messages from one neuron to another orfrom a neuron to a specific target tissueNeurotransmitters are manufactured and stored in synaptic vesicles. Theyenable conduction of impulses across the synaptic cleft.When released, the neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft and bindsto receptors in the postsynaptic cell membraneThe action of a neurotransmitter is to potentiate, terminate, or modulatea specific action and can either excite or inhibit the target cell’s activityNeurotransmittersAcetycholineDopamineEpi and Nor EGABASerotonin (↓ depression, ↑ manic)Glutamine (excitatory)CEREBRUMfrontaloccipitalparietaltemporalAnatomy and PhysiologyCentral lobe- controls visceral fx- activities of internal organRhinencephalon/ Limbec- Smell, libido, long-term memoryCerebellum-Sensory perception and motor outputDisorder = in fine movement, equilibrium, posture and motorlearning-Coordinates sm muscle mov’t-coordinates, posture, equilibrium and muscle tone- It controls fine movements, balance, position sense. (awareness of where each part of the body is)CNSThalamusHypothalamusPituitary Gland
The ThalamusAfferent neurons coming from all sense organs (except olfactory) & motorneurons synapse with nuclei found within the thalamus
cerebrumThe thalamus also helps one associate feelings of pleasantness orunpleasantness with sensory impulsesRelays sensory impulses to the cortexProvides a pain gateHYPOTHALAMUSlocated anterior and inferior to the Thalamus. the hypothalamus liesimmediately beneath and lateral to the lower portion of the wall of thethird ventricle. It includes the optic chiasm (the point at which the twooptic tracts cross) and the mamillary bodies.HYPOTHALAMUSThe hypothalamus plays an important role in the endocrine systembecause it regulates the pituitary secretion of hormones that influencemetabolism, reproduction, stress response, and urine production. It workswith the pituitary to maintain fluid balance and maintains temperatureregulation by promoting vasoconstriction or vasodilatation.BrainStem
Mid BrainPonsMedulla
The MidbrainMotor coordinationVisual reflex and auditory relay centerPonsRegulates breathing- resp. centerMedulla oblongataContains efferent/afferent fibersCardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor center( bld. vessel diameter)MedullaVital reflex centers within the medulla:
Cardiac centers – control heart rateVasomotor centers – control blood pressureRespiratory centers – regulate breathingCenters for vomiting, sneezing, coughing, & swallowingCenters for reflexes mediated by CNs IX-XII

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