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Morphological Structure of English Word

Morphological Structure of English Word

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Published by: AndreySAA on Sep 11, 2009
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04/11/2013

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Министерство науки и высшего образования Республики КазахстанКарагандинский Университет Бизнеса Управления и ПраваФакультет иностранных языков
Реферат
по дисциплине: «Лексикология»на тему: «Morphological structure of English word»Выполнил: Студент гр. А-97-2 _______________ Шалаев А.В.Проверил: преподаватель факультетаиностранных языков _______________ Карабалиева Ш.М.Дата защиты: «________»Оценка «__________»Караганда 2000
 
This great topic considered the structure of English words includes many items. There are such asaffixes, prefixes allomorphs etc.In this work I want to try to learn these important lexical meanings.And I hope the material I gathered with help of Arnold's book and other internet material will beinterested for readers and help them to understand English better.So, fistful I want to begin from the defining the Morphology.
Morphology studies the internal structure of words
There are many words in English that are fairly obviously analyzable into smaller grammaticalunits. For example, the word "unacceptability" can be divided into
un-, accept, abil-
, and
-ity (abil-
 being a variant of 
-able)
. Of these, at least three are minimal grammatical units, in the sense thatthey cannot be analyzed into yet smaller grammatical units--
un-, abil-
, and
ity
. The status of 
accept 
,from this point of view, is somewhat uncertain. Given the existence of such forms as
accede
and
accuse
, on the one hand, and of 
except 
,
exceed 
, and
excuse
, on the other, one might be inclined toanalyze
accept 
into
ac-
(which might subsequently be recognized as a variant of 
ad-
) and
-cept 
. Thequestion is left open. Minimal grammatical units like
un-, abil-
, and
-ity
are what Bloomfield calledmorphemes; he defined them in terms of the "partial phonetic-semantic resemblance" holdingwithin sets of words. For example, "unacceptable," "untrue," and "ungracious" are phonetically (or, phonologically) similar as far as the first syllable is concerned and are similar in meaning in thateach of them is negative by contrast with a corresponding positive adjective ("acceptable," "true,""gracious"). This "partial phonetic-semantic resemblance" is accounted for by noting that the wordsin question contain the same morpheme (namely,
un-
) and that this morpheme has a certain phonological form and a certain meaning.
Morphs that are in complementary distribution and represent the same morpheme are said tobe allomorphs of that morpheme. For example, the regular plurals of English nouns are formedby adding one of three morphs on to the form of the singular: /s/, /z/, or /iz/ (in the
2
 
corresponding written forms both /s/ and /z/ are written
-s
and /iz/ is written
-es
). Theirdistribution is determined by the following principle:
if the morph to which they are to be added ends in a "sibilant" sound (e.g., s, z, sh, ch), thenthe syllabic allomorph /iz/ is selected (e.g., fish-es /fis-iz/, match-es /mac-iz/);
Otherwise the nonsyllabic allomorphs are selected, the voiceless allomorph /s/ with morphsending in a voiceless consonant (
e.g., cat-s
/kat-s/) and the voiced allomorph /z/ with morphsending in a vowel or voiced consonant (
e.g., flea-s
/fli-z/,
dog-s
/dog-z/). These threeallomorphs, it will be evident, are in complementary distribution, and the alternation betweenthem is determined by the phonological structure of the preceding morph. Thus the choice isphonologically conditioned.
3

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