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Multiplexing and PSTN

Multiplexing and PSTN

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Published by: dinpavan on Sep 13, 2009
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02/06/2013

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 E303 & ISE3.2E 
IMPERIAL COLLEGE of SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY and MEDICINE,DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING.
COMPACT LECTURE NOTES on COMMUNICATION THEORY. Dr Athanassios Manikas, Autumn 2001
Multiplexing &Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN)
Outline: 
ì
 PCM: Bandwidth, Bandwidth Expansion Factor, output SNR and ThresholdEffects.
ì
 CCITT recommendations for PCM (24-channels and 30-channels)
ì
 Plesiochronous digital hierarchies (PDH)
ì
 Synchronous digital hierarchies (SONET/SDH)
ì
 
B
DSL-type transmission systems
 
Principles of Communication Theory & SystemsCompact Lecture NotesPSTN 2Dr A. Manikas
? ?
1. INTRODUCTION
H()
^^^^^^
Principles of Communication Theory & SystemsCompact Lecture NotesPSTN 3Dr A. Manikas
? ?
ì œ
of an analogue signal are transmittedPCMsampled quantized valuesvia a .sequence of codewordsi.e. after sampling & quantization, a is used to map the
Source Encoder 
quantized levels (i.e. o/p of quantizer) to
codewords of bits
 
i.e.
quantized levelcodeword of bits
È
and, then, a digital modulator is used to trasmit the bits,i.e. PCM system
ì
There are three popular PCM source encoders(or, in other words, Quantization-levels Encoders).
?
Binary Coded Decimal
(BCD) source encoder
?
Folded BCD
source encoder
?
Gray Code
(GC) source encoder
 
Principles of Communication Theory & SystemsCompact Lecture NotesPSTN 4Dr A. Manikas
? ?
 
000011010001010011010001001011000000100100100101101101110110111111111110
m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
m
5
m
6
m
7
m
8
BCD codeFolded BCDGRAY Code
g
q
(Volts)
g
(Volts)
g g
(inputoutput
Ñ È Ð Ñ
q
g
qssamplessec
: occurs at a rate
 N.B.: F.
Ð # Ñ
sg
U œ
quantizer levels;
=
log
#
a b
U
,3>=
level
ì
:
Note
codeword rate ()quant levels ratesampling rate=
o/p of source encoder
ÅÅ Å
-bit seclevelssecsec
-9./A9<.==+7:6/=
===
Þ J #
= 1
Principles of Communication Theory & SystemsCompact Lecture NotesPSTN 5Dr A. Manikas
? ?
ì U œ
bit rate: e.g. for 16 levels then
r= . r=.
bbbitslevellevelssecbitssec
ÅJ % ÅÅ
= =
(e.g. transmitted sequ.=101011001101 ....)
Æ ÆÅì?Å
versions:aof PCMDifferential PCM (DPCM): diff. quantizersDelta Modulation: diff. quants with 2 levels + or
ÚÝÝÝÝÝÝÛÝÝÝÝÝÝÜ
? ?
re encoded usinga single binary digit(DM DPCM)Others

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