added to irrigation water. Producers must retain purchasereceipts and record soil fertility, pest management, andharvest activities to verify yields and sales.
Producers may use only natural materials in organic production. The
Organic Crop Production Standards
include lists of approved generic materials includingfertilizers, growth promoters, soil amendments, pesti-cides, and postharvest treatments. The
Brand Name Materials List
presents commercially available materialsthat are approved for use in organic production. Theselists assist producers in identifying organic materials,and local Cooperative Extension offices can further help producers decide which materials are best suited for their particular needs. Producers should always readlabels before applying any pesticides. Only pesticidesthat are registered in Washington State may be applied.For registration information, growers can contactWSDA’s Pesticide Management Division (see
Organic Mushroom Production
Organic Mushroom Production Standards
are designed to ensure high quality, residue-free mush-rooms produced without the use of synthetic fertilizersand pesticides. The standards address agar, hay, straw,and wood production systems, but they do not addresscompost and manure production systems. At this time,compost- and manure-grown mushrooms may be certifiedorganic on a case-by-case basis. Standards for growingmedium and pest management are summarized below.
Mushrooms do not have the ability to manufacture foodthrough photosynthesis and thus rely exclusively on thematerial in which they are grown for all their nutrition.Therefore, the growing medium is critical to the healthand quality of mushrooms. Agar used as a growingmedium may be non-organic; however, all plant-derivedamendments (e.g., rice bran, cottonseed meal, wheatgerm) used in the medium must be certified organic.Grain, straw, or hay used in the medium must be certi-fied organic, and wood used for mushroom productionmust not have been treated with any prohibited materialsfor at least three years prior to harvest.
Because producing insect- and disease-free mushroomsrequires special attention to cleanliness, producers mayuse chlorine bleach to sterilize equipment and facilities.They may not apply bleach to crops or the growingmedium. Antibiotics are allowed only in the agar growing medium, but levels cannot exceed
th of one gram per liter of agar mix. All pest control materialsmust be approved for use in organic food production(producers can refer to the
Organic Crop ProductionStandards
Brand Name Materials List
). Produc-ers should always read labels before applying any pesticides.
Organic Livestock Production
Animal Production Standards for Organic Meat and Dairy Products
, available from the WSDAOFP, are discussed below. These production standardsapply to any animal that is raised for meat, dairy, or eggs, and they outline requirements for animal healthcare, feed, living conditions, record keeping, andlabeling. Animals raised for organic meat or dairy must be raised according to these standards for at least 12months prior to slaughter or production. If slaughter or production occurs in less than 12 months from birth,animals must be raised organically from birth. Inaddition, when animals are slaughtered less than 12months from birth, their mothers must meet the criteriaduring the last
of gestation and while the slaughter animal is nursing.
The OFP promotes an integrated approach to disease prevention, parasite control, and disease treatment.It prohibits the use of antibiotics and hormones for aherd’s daily health program, but producers of organicanimals may market only healthy animals and animal products; they may not withhold disease treatment inorder to represent animals or animal products asorganic. Producers must treat sick animals, but treatedanimals and animal products cannot be sold as organic.Producers should contact their veterinary practitioner to determine appropriate treatments; however, thefollowing paragraphs briefly describe the OFP standardsfor enzootic disease management and daily health programs. Necessary use of prohibited substances isalso described.
Enzootic Disease Management.
The OFP approvesthe use of all vaccines for enzootic diseases (diseasesthat are regularly present in certain groups of animalsin particular geographical locations). These vaccinesinclude USDA licensed biologics, and they must beused in accordance with label directions. Approvedvaccines include those:•Required by law (e.g., Brucellosis, emergency disease)
Organic Food Production—3