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Processing Technologies for Value Added

Processing Technologies for Value Added

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Published by John Henry Wells

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Published by: John Henry Wells on Sep 13, 2009
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11/04/2012

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The New Food Entremanuer Conference, April 1The New Food Entremanuer Conference, April 1--2, 20052, 2005
Potential ProcessingPotential ProcessingTechnologies for ValueTechnologies for Value--Added Fruit & VegetableAdded Fruit & VegetableProductsProducts
Yanyun ZhaoYanyun ZhaoDept. of Food Science & TechnologyDept. of Food Science & TechnologyOregon State UniversityOregon State University
ValueValue--Added Food ProductsAdded Food Products
ValueValue--added food products are raw or preadded food products are raw or pre--processed commodities whose value hasprocessed commodities whose value hasbeen increased through the addition of been increased through the addition of ingredients or processes that make themingredients or processes that make themmore attractive to the buyer and/or moremore attractive to the buyer and/or morereadily usable by the consumer.readily usable by the consumer.
Adding Value to Your ProductsAdding Value to Your Products
Product ideasProduct ideasProcessing technologiesProcessing technologiesPackage designPackage designMarketing and advertisingMarketing and advertising
Food Processing TechnologiesFood Processing Technologies
Physical MethodsPhysical Methods
 – –High temperatures (canning)High temperatures (canning) – –Low temperatures (freezing)Low temperatures (freezing) – –Remove of water (drying)Remove of water (drying) – –High hydrostatic pressureHigh hydrostatic pressure – –Use of ionizing radiationUse of ionizing radiation
Chemical MethodsChemical Methods
 – –Use of sugar (jams, jellies)Use of sugar (jams, jellies) – –Fermentation and salting (natural fermentation)Fermentation and salting (natural fermentation) – –Treatment with acids (addition of vinegar)Treatment with acids (addition of vinegar)
ShortShort--term Processing Methodsterm Processing Methods
 – –RefrigerationRefrigeration – –Cold storage and packaging with modified or controlledCold storage and packaging with modified or controlledatmosphereatmosphere – –Chemical treatmentsChemical treatments
Freezing Fruits and VegetablesFreezing Fruits and Vegetables
Freezing
is a quick andconvenient way to preservefruits and vegetables. Theextreme cold slows thegrowth of microorganismsand the chemical changesthat affect quality or causespoilage.Correctly frozenfoods maintain excellentcolor, flavor, texture, and foodvalue.
Freezing MethodsFreezing Methods
Air freezingAir freezing
 – –air air --blast freezer (blast freezer (--30~30~--4545
oo
C, air velocity 10~15m/sec)C, air velocity 10~15m/sec)
Indirect contact freezingIndirect contact freezing
 – –food placed on cold plates, trays, belts, separatedfood placed on cold plates, trays, belts, separatedfrom refrigerantfrom refrigerant
Immersion freezingImmersion freezing
 – –immersion in cold air immersion in cold air --fluidized bedfluidized bed – –immersion with cryogenic liquid (liquid Nimmersion with cryogenic liquid (liquid N
22
& CO& CO
2)2)
--boiling temp. of liquid Nboiling temp. of liquid N
22
isis--196196
oo
C, COC, CO
22
isis--7979
oo
CC
 
Air Air --blast Freezer blast Freezer 
Tray Freezer Spiral Freezer 
Fluidized Bed Freezer Fluidized Bed Freezer 
A modified version of an IQFA modified version of an IQFsystem.system.Very high convective heat transfer Very high convective heat transfer coefficients.coefficients.Product pieces must be relativelyProduct pieces must be relativelysmall to establish and maintain asmall to establish and maintain afluidized bed.fluidized bed.The limits to use of the process areThe limits to use of the process arebased on efficiency: energybased on efficiency: energyrequirements necessary torequirements necessary tomaintain the fluidized condition.maintain the fluidized condition.The primary product parameter The primary product parameter influencing energy required for influencing energy required for fluidization is size or mass of thefluidization is size or mass of theproduct.product.
Immerse Freezer Immerse Freezer 
The product is exposed to a liquidThe product is exposed to a liquidrefrigerant that is undergoing phaserefrigerant that is undergoing phasechange as the freezing processchange as the freezing processoccurs.occurs.The common refrigerants used for The common refrigerants used for immersion freezersimmersion freezers--nitrogen,nitrogen,carbon dioxide, and Freoncarbon dioxide, and Freon--must bemust beapproved for food product contact.approved for food product contact.Very rapid freezing is achieved,Very rapid freezing is achieved,resulting in superior product qualityresulting in superior product qualitywhen rate of ice crystal formationwhen rate of ice crystal formationinfluences quality.influences quality.Overall process efficiency isOverall process efficiency isinfluenced by recover expensiveinfluenced by recover expensiverefrigerant as the freezing processrefrigerant as the freezing processis complete.is complete.
Indirect Contact Freezer Indirect Contact Freezer --Plate Freezer Plate Freezer Quality Control of Frozen FruitsQuality Control of Frozen Fruitsand Vegetablesand Vegetables
Rapid freezing (Rapid freezing (>4>4
oo
C/min) to have sC/min) to have small regular mall regular ice crystalsice crystalsMaintain low and stable storage temp. (Maintain low and stable storage temp. ( – –18 ~18 ~ – –2323
oo
C)C)to prevent reto prevent re--crystallization, high drip loss,crystallization, high drip loss,etc.etc.Prevention of freezing burn during storagePrevention of freezing burn during storage – –appropriate packaging materials and preventappropriate packaging materials and preventtemp. fluctuation during storagetemp. fluctuation during storageBlanching before freezing of some fruits andBlanching before freezing of some fruits andvegetables to inactivate natural enzymes for vegetables to inactivate natural enzymes for preventing discoloration and quality losspreventing discoloration and quality loss
Application (Market) of FrozenApplication (Market) of FrozenFruits and VegetablesFruits and Vegetables
As end products for direct consumer As end products for direct consumer usageusageIngredients in ice cream, frozen yogurt,Ingredients in ice cream, frozen yogurt,fresh and frozen baked goods and other fresh and frozen baked goods and other frozen dairy and nonfrozen dairy and non--dairy productsdairy products
 
Drying Fruits and VegetablesDrying Fruits and Vegetables
Drying
is the oldestmethod of preserving foodby removing water fromfood (reducing water activity). Advantagesinclude:-Make product safe-Convenience-Increase shelf life-Reduce weight
Drying MethodsDrying Methods
Sun (raisins)Sun (raisins)Belt oven (vegetable pieces, crackers,Belt oven (vegetable pieces, crackers,cookies)cookies)Roller or drum (mashed potatoes)Roller or drum (mashed potatoes)Spray (coffee, infant formula)Spray (coffee, infant formula)Freeze (coffee, strawberries)Freeze (coffee, strawberries)Osmosis (infusion)Osmosis (infusion)
Batch and Continuous Air DryingBatch and Continuous Air Drying
Drum DryingDrum DryingFreeze DryingFreeze Drying
Water removal by sublimation• Under vacuum (27-133 Pa)
Freeze DryingFreeze Drying
Components in freezeComponents in freezedrier drier 
 – –FreezeFreeze--dryer dryer  – –Heater Heater  – –Vacuum pumpVacuum pump
Best nutrient qualityBest nutrient qualityBest product qualityBest product quality(shape;(shape;rehydrationrehydration))Most expensiveMost expensiveGood controlGood control

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