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How Many Kinds of Yugas Are There

How Many Kinds of Yugas Are There

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Published by Satya Sarada
This document explains what a yuga means and how many kinds of yugas there are as per Ancient Indian Astronomy.
For the latest updated and more accurate version please refer to : http://oldthoughts.wordpress.com/how-many-kinds-of-yugas-are-there/
I update this doc less frequently.
This document explains what a yuga means and how many kinds of yugas there are as per Ancient Indian Astronomy.
For the latest updated and more accurate version please refer to : http://oldthoughts.wordpress.com/how-many-kinds-of-yugas-are-there/
I update this doc less frequently.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Satya Sarada on Sep 13, 2009
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01/04/2013

 
Satya Sarada KandulaAll Rights ReservedPage Number 1 out of 13
How many kinds of Yugas are there?
 Authorship and Copyright Notice: All rights reserved: Satya Sarada KandulaCaution : Living Document : Linking is safe. Quoting is not safe. Reproduction without  permission, and deleting data links, are likely to lead to misinformation and confusion for which the karma rests with the reproducer, and not with me. There are no authorized copies of this document on the web anywhere. Latest Version :
 Abstract:
In this article I explain the definition of Yuga as an alignment of celestial bodies andshow how the Yuga Durations differed in Various Astronomical Siddhantas of India, depending onthe number of luminary bodies that were taken into consideration and their orbital periods. I showthat the oldest siddhantas like the Pitamaha Siddhanta had the shortest yuga durations, becausethey considered the fewest luminary bodies. The latest ones siddhantas have the longest durationsbecause of the number of the larger number of luminary bodies (plus shadowy bodies – the nodes),that have been taken into consideration. I try to find the yuga durations that must have beenreferred to by
 in
his compilation
s of the Puranas and his authoring of the Mahabharataand the Srimad Bhagavatam.
(See :
 
 )
Background : The traditional view is incidentally the most modern one! As per this,
amahayuga is a period of 4320000 years duration.
Also called a chaturyuga, it has four subdivisions, krutha, thretha, dwapara and kali.
Dwapara is 2 times as long as Kali, Thretha is 3 times as long as Kali and Krutha is 4 timesas long as Kali Yuga.
Krutha Yuga is a pure period and Kali Yuga is a bad time. (Some texts explain that Dharmawalks on four feet in Krutha/Satya Yuga, on 3 feet in Tretha Yuga, on two feet in DwaparaYuga and one foot in Kaliyuga.)
At the end of this Kali Yuga, an avatar of Vishnu called Kalki will destroy all the evil doers.It is also believed that there is one main avatar in each Yuga and several minor avatars.The main avatar of Tretha Tyuga is Rama, the main avatar of Dwapara yuga is Krishna.
As per the Nannaya Bharatam, Vyasa started writing the Mahabharata in Year 1 of kaliyugaand completed it in year 4 of kaliyuga.
We are now in the first of 4 quarters (padas) of KaliYuga. When we pray, we say, “Jambudvipe, bharatha varshe, bharatha khande, Meroyah dakshina digbhage”. We alsogive some geographical info giving our relation to rivers and holy places. Then we give thecalendar information like our kalpa, praharardha, manvanatara and yuga pada.
.After this we give the name of the year in the 60 year cycle – Prabhava, Vibhavaetc” (2009-2010 is Virodhi Nama Samvatsara) and further go on with the the tithi vara andnakshatra information, knowledgeable people may give even more details of karana etc.
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Definition of a Yuga :
 A Yuga means a joining or an alignment of planets and/or stars and/or their apogees and perigees. Yugas have to do with alignment and the more celestial bodies that have toline up, the more time it is going to take and the more corrections it is going to take. For a further simpler explanation of the basics : See : 
 and 
Whenever any  
defines a Yuga, it refers to the Mahayuga or the Chaturyuga. While someof the Different siddhantas divide up the Mahayuga into fractions in the ratio 4:3:2:1 or 1:1:1:1,all of them do not.
List of the Yugas described in this article :
1.
Chandramana and Souramana Yugas:
Lunar and Solar Years : Approximately 1 yearduration.
In use.
2.
Vedic Yugas: Vedanga Jyothisham: Pitamaha (Brahma) Siddhantam: 5years:
(Dhanishta Nakshatram, Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon) are aligned: The PitamahaYuga starts when Dhanishta is in Amavasya.) No longer in use.
3.
Gavam Ayanam:
 
(Chaturyuga has
4 years, each of exactly 365 1/4 solar days, or 365days + 1 pada) : (At the end of Kali, one pada gets added, … at the end of Krutha 4 padasget added and the leap day is completed). No longer in use.
4.
Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 12 years : (
Surya, Chandra, Tishya (Pushya),Brhaspati or are aligned 
The 12 year Kumbha Mela is based on this.)Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 60 year variant :
Surya, Chandra, Pushya,Brihaspati plus Sani 
 )
5.
(The time taken for the starting point of the moveable(tropical) zodiac, to pass one 1 complete nakshatram. Derived from precession of equinoxes)
6.
SaptaRishi Yuga :
2700 years. (A pointer through the bowl of the Saptarishi Mandalamoves to a different nakshatra, by the end of a century).
7.
Romaka Siddhantam :
2850 years
8.
Poorva Surya Siddhantham :
180,000 years or 1,800,000 years.
9.
4,320,000 years
10.
Markandeya Yugas, as per the Mahabharata.
11.
Naveena Siddhanthams :
4,320,000 years: (4:3:2:1 Ratio for Kruta, Treta, Dwapara andKali). In Use.
12.
Aryabhatiyam:
4,320,000 years
(Alignments of grahas as well as their nodes etc, 1:1:1:1Ratio for Yugapadas: Kruta, Treta, Dwapara, Kali are not mentioned by name)
1. Chandramana and Souramana Yugas : 1 year duration. : This section will also help youwith the basics needed understand the other sections too.First concept :
The moon is concerned only with months and the it is the only the sun that isconcerned with years. So the month is concerned with the moon’s orbit and the year is concerned with earth’s orbit. There is very little influence of the one on the other. The concept of a lunar year creeps in, when you try to find out how many lunar months can be acomodated in 1 year.
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What is a Lunar Month? A
lunar month has to do with the moon going around the earthonce. Then you say Define “Once”.
A
sidereal month,
is the time it takes, for the moon to line up with the same star. Thistakes 27.321661 solar days (27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s).
A
 synodic month
is the time it takes for the moon to line up with the sun. This takes29.53 solar days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds) and is measured from NewMoon to New Moon.
There are many other kinds of lunar month.
What is a solar day? 
A solar day is the time duration of the earth’s orbit. In the most ancient of times, it was the time between two sun rises.
What is a year ? 
A year is the duration of the earth’s orbit.
A solar year is the time it takes for the earth to come back to the same point in it’s orbitwith respect to the sun. (365.25 days)
A sidereal year is the time it takes for the earth to come back to the same point in it’s orbitwith respect to the same star (nakshatras).
These two differ by a few minutes. In other words, it is the time the sun takes to finishone 
and to come back to ‘the same place’. Butwhat means ‘the same place’? It is the same place with respect to the earth’s orbit aroundthe sun. It is slightly off from the same place with respect to the stars. Why is this? Notonly are we spinning around the sun, the sun is dragging us around the galactic center. Ittakes one sidereal year for the sun to align with the same stars.
12 lunar synodic months fit into 1 solar year with 5.25 days to spare.Ugadi means Yugadi:
Kannadigas and Telugu people celebrate a Chandramana (Lunar) Yugadi,and Tamils celebrate a Souramana (Solar)Yugadi, once a year, in spring. Yugadi means, thebeginning of a Yuga. In Telugu, it is frequently called Ugadi, with ‘y’ dropped by scholars andlaymen alike.
What is a Lunar Year? 
The time duration between two lunar yugadis is 12 synodic months. This isa chandramana year. The time duration between two souramana yugadis is 365 days.
 Are all lunar (chadramana) years of the same duration? No! 
12 lunar months are 354.36days if you are using synodic months or 327.8599 days if you are thinking sidereal months.
Somelunar years are 13 months long! 
Every 3 years an Adhika Masam is added, to make up for thedifference in the lengths of the solar and lunar years. (It is like adding a leap day into the solarcalendar once in 4 years). But now you have added 4.5 days too many. So the Sun, Moon and Starsare not perfectly aligned, as before, yet. There is a lot of complex arithmetic, which tells you whento add months (adhikamasas) and when to delete dates (tithikshayas). Some lunar days are a little
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