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CoralPetition03-02Final_1

CoralPetition03-02Final_1

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Published by nashworld
This document is a 111 page formal academic petition to the US government (in the form of NOAA Fisheries) to list the Caribbean Acroporiid corals: Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata), Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), and the hybrid Fused-staghorn coral (Acropora prolifera) under the Endangered Species act (ESA).

This formal petition was created and submitted by the Center for Biological Diversity.

The document features many photographs taken by Sean Nash on trips to Andros Island in The Bahamas with groups of high school students enrolled his marine biology course.
This document is a 111 page formal academic petition to the US government (in the form of NOAA Fisheries) to list the Caribbean Acroporiid corals: Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata), Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), and the hybrid Fused-staghorn coral (Acropora prolifera) under the Endangered Species act (ESA).

This formal petition was created and submitted by the Center for Biological Diversity.

The document features many photographs taken by Sean Nash on trips to Andros Island in The Bahamas with groups of high school students enrolled his marine biology course.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: nashworld on Sep 13, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

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P
ETITION
T
O
L
IST
A
CROPORA
P
ALMATA
(E
LKHORN
C
ORAL
),A
CROPORA
C
ERVICORNIS
(S
TAGHORN
C
ORAL
), A
ND
A
CROPORA
P
ROLIFERA
(F
USED
-S
TAGHORN
C
ORAL
) A
S
E
NDANGERED
S
PECIES
U
NDER 
T
HE
E
NDANGERED
S
PECIES
A
CT
 A. palmata
(foreground left) &
 A. cervicornis
(background) at Andros Island, Bahamas [Sean Nash]
CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
PetitionerMarch 3, 2004
 
i
NOTICE OF PETITION
Center for Biological Diversity370 Grand Ave. Suite 5Oakland, CA 94610(510) 663-0616Contact: Brent Plater Petitioner Center for Biological Diversity (“CBD”) formally requests that the NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office (NOAA Fisheries) list
 Acropora palmata
(Elkhorn Coral),
 Acropora cervicornis
(Staghorn Coral), and
 Acropora prolifera
(Fused-Staghorn Coral) as endangered species under the federalEndangered Species Act.
1
In the alternative, petitioner formally requests that NOAAFisheries list
 Acropora palmata
,
 Acropora cervicornis
, and
 Acropora prolifera
asthreatened species under the ESA. In either case, CBD requests that critical habitat bedesignated concurrent with the listing designation.Existing measures already in place for protecting these species are both insufficient andineffective in curbing the dramatic and disturbing losses documented herein. This petition discusses the factors contributing to the decline of these species. It also reviewsthe taxonomy, biology, and natural history of these coral species, as well as the factors NOAA Fisheries must consider in making a listing determination and designating criticalhabitat.This petition is filed under § 553(e) of the Administrative Procedure Act,
2
§ 1533(b)(3)of the ESA, and 50 C.F.R. § 424.14(b). Because
 Acropora
is classified in the order Scleractinia, NOAA Fisheries has jurisdiction over this petition.
3
This petition sets inmotion a specific administrative process as defined by § 1533(b)(3) and 50 C.F.R. §424.14(b), placing mandatory response requirements on NOAA Fisheries.The Center for Biological Diversity is a non-profit environmental organization dedicatedto protecting endangered species and wild places through science, policy, education, andenvironmental law. CBD submits this petition on its own behalf and on behalf of itsmembers and staff, with an interest in protecting these coral species and their habitat. 
1
 
16 U.S.C. §§1531-1544 [hereinafter ESA].
2
 
5 U.S.C. §§551-559 [hereinafter APA].
3
 
Memorandum of Understanding between the USFWS & NMFS Regarding Jurisdictional Responsibilitiesand Listing Procedures under the ESA (1974).
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Notice of Petition...............................................................................................iTable of Contents .............................................................................................iiExecutive Summary..........................................................................................1Natural History.................................................................................................4Description ...................................................................................................4Taxonomy ....................................................................................................7Historic Distribution........................................................................................9Habitat.......................................................................................................10Species Importance......................................................................................10Ecological Importance................................................................................11Economic Importance................................................................................14Medical Importance...................................................................................14Behavior.....................................................................................................15Reproduction............................................................................................15Growth....................................................................................................16Feeding ...................................................................................................17Status and Change in Distribution.....................................................................19Overall Losses.............................................................................................19United States and its Territories.....................................................................20Florida.....................................................................................................20Biscayne National Park............................................................................21Florida Keys ..........................................................................................21Dry Tortugas .........................................................................................23Navassa Island Wildlife Refuge....................................................................24Puerto Rico ..............................................................................................25
 
U.S. Virgin Islands....................................................................................26St. Croix...............................................................................................27St. John................................................................................................27St. Thomas............................................................................................27Other Countries...........................................................................................28Central and South America.........................................................................28Belize...................................................................................................29Colombia ..............................................................................................29Costa Rica.............................................................................................29Guatemala ............................................................................................30Honduras..............................................................................................30Mexico..................................................................................................30Nicaragua .............................................................................................31Panama ................................................................................................31Venezuela.............................................................................................32Islands of the wider Caribbean Sea..............................................................33Anguilla ................................................................................................33Antigua and Barbuda ..............................................................................33Bahamas...............................................................................................33Barbados ..............................................................................................35British Virgin Islands...............................................................................35Cayman Islands .....................................................................................36Cuba ....................................................................................................37Dominica ..............................................................................................38

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