D.After Germany invaded the Soviet Union the US extended lend-lease to the Soviet Union, which became part of the Allied coalition.II.In his State of the Union address to Congress in jan 1941, Roosevelt had connected lend-lease to thedefense of democracy at home as well as in Europe. He spoke about what he considered the 4 essentialfreedoms—freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedomfrom fear. Although Roosevelt avoided stating that America had to enter the war to protect thesefreedoms, he intended to justify exactly that, for he now regarded US participation as inevitable.
In the implementation of lend-lease marked the unofficial entrance of the US into the Europeanwar.The Atlantic Charter I.The US became even more involved in Aug 1941, when Roosevelt and the British prime minister conferred secretly aboard a battleship to discuss goals and military strategy.A.Their joint press release, which became known as the Atlantic Charter, provided the ideologicalfoundation of the Western cause and of the peace to follow.
The charter called for postwar economic collaboration and guarantees of political stability toensure that “all men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.” Thecharter also supported free trade, national self-determination, and the principle of collectivesecurity.II.When America started supplying the Allies, Germany attacked American and Allied ships. BySeptember 1941 Nazi submarines and American vessels were fighting an undeclared naval war in theAtlantic, unknown to the American public.The Attack on Pearl Harbor I.The final provocation came from Japan. Tensions between Japan and the US had been buildingthroughout the 1930s.A.The Japanese advances in China had upset the balance of political and economic power in thePacific, where the US had long enjoyed the benefits of the open door policy, especially access toChina’s raw materials and markets.B.It was the Japanese invasion of China in 1937 that caused Roosevelt to suggest that suchaggressors be “quarantined” by peace-loving nations.C.The US still avoided taking a stand, mainly because isolationism was still strong in the country.II.With the attention of the major powers focused on Europe, Japan’s imperial intentions became moreexpansionist. In 1940 Japan signed the Tri-Partite Treaty with Germany and Italy that extended theAxis into Asia, and in the fall of 1940 Japanese troops occupied the northern part of French Indochina.A.The US retaliated by effectively cutting off trade with Japan, including vital oil shipments thataccounted for almost 80% of Japanese consumption.B.When Japan occupied the rest of Indochina, Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the US andinstituted an embargo on trade with Japan.III.In Sep 1941 the government of Hideki Tojo began secret preparations for was against the US. Talks between the 2 nations continued without progress. By Nov American military intelligence knew thatJapan was planning an attack but did not know where it would occur.A.On Dec 7, 1941, Japanese bombers attacked the naval base at Pearl Harbor.B.Although the attack was devastating, it united the American people in anger and a determination tofight.C.The next day Roosevelt went before congress and asked for a declaration of war against Japan.Organizing for Victory
The task of fighting a global war accelerated the growing influence of the state on American life.Coordinating the changeover from civilian to war production, raising an army, and assembling thenecessary work force taxed government agencies to the limit.