material for this research because the techniques for processing it are wellunderstood and it demonstrates certain desirable behaviors. For example,while silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, it is transparent at theinfrared wavelengths used in optical transmission, hence it can guide light.Moreover, manufacturing silicon components in high volume to thespecifications needed by optical communications is comparativelyinexpensive. Silicon’s key drawback is that it can not emit laser light, and sothe lasers that drive optical communications have been made of more exoticmaterials such as indium phosphide. However, silicon can be used tomanipulate the light emitted by inexpensive lasers so as to provide light thathas characteristics similar to more-expensive devices. This is just one way inwhich silicon can lower the cost of photonics.
1.2Silicon Photonics Research
With the goal of developing photonic components that are factory-compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits and opticalintegrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense researchactivity in both industry and academia. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the sub micrometer scale, and possessesthe added advantage of leveraging the enormous manufacturinginfrastructure developed by the silicon microelectronics industry. Siliconoptoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized andmass-produced at affordable cost for many applications and markets,including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. Recent developments in diverse areas, suchas light sources, modulators, switches, detectors, photonic crystals,
Sipna COET, Amravati.