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Seminar Report on Silicon Photonics

Seminar Report on Silicon Photonics

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01/11/2013

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Silicon Photonics
Chapter 1Silicon Photonics
Silicon photonics can be defined as the utilization of silicon-basedmaterials for the generation (electrical-to optical conversion), guide, control,and detect (optical-to electrical conversion) of light to communicateinformation over distance. The most advanced extension of this concept is tohave a comprehensive set of optical and electronic functions available to thedesigner as monolithically integrated building blocks upon a single siliconsubstrate.
1.1
Why Silicon Photonics?
Fiber-optic communication is the process of transporting data at highspeeds on a glass fiber using light. Fiber optic communication is wellestablished today due to the great capacity and reliability it provides.However, the technology has suffered from a reputation as an expensivesolution. This view is based in large part on the high cost of the hardwarecomponents. These components are typically fabricated using exoticmaterials that are expensive to manufacture. In addition, these componentstend to be specialized and require complex steps to assemble and package.These limitations prompted Intel to research the construction of fiber-opticcomponents from other materials, such as silicon. The vision of silicon photonics arose from the research performed in this area. Its overarchinggoal is to develop high-volume, low-cost optical components using standardCMOS processing the same manufacturing process used fomicroprocessors and semiconductor devices. Silicon presents a unique
Sipna COET, Amravati.
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Silicon Photonics
material for this research because the techniques for processing it are wellunderstood and it demonstrates certain desirable behaviors. For example,while silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, it is transparent at theinfrared wavelengths used in optical transmission, hence it can guide light.Moreover, manufacturing silicon components in high volume to thespecifications needed by optical communications is comparativelyinexpensive. Silicon’s key drawback is that it can not emit laser light, and sothe lasers that drive optical communications have been made of more exoticmaterials such as indium phosphide. However, silicon can be used tomanipulate the light emitted by inexpensive lasers so as to provide light thathas characteristics similar to more-expensive devices. This is just one way inwhich silicon can lower the cost of photonics.
1.2Silicon Photonics Research
With the goal of developing photonic components that are factory-compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits and opticalintegrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense researchactivity in both industry and academia. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the sub micrometer scale, and possessesthe added advantage of leveraging the enormous manufacturinginfrastructure developed by the silicon microelectronics industry. Siliconoptoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized andmass-produced at affordable cost for many applications and markets,including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. Recent developments in diverse areas, suchas light sources, modulators, switches, detectors, photonic crystals,
Sipna COET, Amravati.
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Silicon Photonics
waveguide structures, resonators, sensors, and various subsystems, indicatethat Si photonics is an extremely active, and now, firmly established researchfield.The aim of this seminar is to reveal some of the remarkable recent progress in silicon photonics from academic and industrial viewpoints andthereby point to future trends in this rapidly evolving field.
1.2.1.
Six Building Blocks : Intel’s SP Research
Intel’s silicon photonics research is an end-to-end effort to buildintegrated photonic devices in silicon for communication and otheapplications. In order to“siliconize” photonics, there are six main areas or  building blocks for research and investigation.• An inexpensive light source.• Devices that route, split, and direct light on the silicon chip.• A modulator to encode or modulate data into the optical signal.• A photodetector to convert the optical signal back into electrical bits.• Low-cost, high-volume assembly methods.• Supporting electronics for intelligence and photonics control.
Fig 1.1:
Building Blocks of Silicon Photonics
Sipna COET, Amravati.
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