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Evaluating the Cultural Revolution in China and its Legacy for the Future

Evaluating the Cultural Revolution in China and its Legacy for the Future

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Published by Communist Party
The MLM Revolutionary Study Group is not affiliated with any revolutionary
party in the U.S. We advocate the development of a broad and dynamic anti-imperialist
struggle that is closely connected to the most exploited and oppressed sections of people
in the U.S. Additionally, we anticipate that serious revolutionaries who share an
internationalist perspective and mass orientation will undertake the building of
revolutionary organization to concentrate and develop leadership for such efforts, and
to chart the pathways for revolution in the U.S., with a significant section of the
working class and oppressed nationalities in the lead.

We encourage such a project and will work to assist its development in every way
we can, which includes drawing on the rich lessons of struggle of the 1960s and 70s
and on the experience of revolutionary forces in the world today, especially
revolutionary Maoist parties and organizations. To reach us, please write to
mlm.rsg@gmail.com.
The MLM Revolutionary Study Group is not affiliated with any revolutionary
party in the U.S. We advocate the development of a broad and dynamic anti-imperialist
struggle that is closely connected to the most exploited and oppressed sections of people
in the U.S. Additionally, we anticipate that serious revolutionaries who share an
internationalist perspective and mass orientation will undertake the building of
revolutionary organization to concentrate and develop leadership for such efforts, and
to chart the pathways for revolution in the U.S., with a significant section of the
working class and oppressed nationalities in the lead.

We encourage such a project and will work to assist its development in every way
we can, which includes drawing on the rich lessons of struggle of the 1960s and 70s
and on the experience of revolutionary forces in the world today, especially
revolutionary Maoist parties and organizations. To reach us, please write to
mlm.rsg@gmail.com.

More info:

Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Communist Party on Sep 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

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 Evaluating the Cultural Revolution in China and its Legacy for the Future
 
 By the MLM Revolutionary Study Group in the U.S.
 
(March 2007)
"
AT THE MEETING OF A MASS PLEDGE
"
The big-character poster reads "A Letter of Pledge." The banner above reads "promoteproduction by making revolution."
Workers' Art Group, Shanghai Steel Factory No. 1
 
 
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. How the Cultural Revolution Affected the Revolutionary Movement in the U.S. 3B. Some Questions Raised by the Cultural Revolution 5C. Prologue to the Cultural Revolution 7D. The Course of the Cultural Revolution 12E. Theoretical Underpinnings of the Cultural Revolution 20F. Achievements of the Cultural Revolution 24(1) Revolution in the Superstructure of Socialist Society 24
Revolutionary Culture 25
 
Education: “Red and Expert”
28
Collective Values and internationalism 34(2) The Liberation of Women 36(3) Narrowing and Overcoming Class Differences and Inequalities 44
Workers Transform Their Factories 45
Peasant Empowerment and Learning from Dazhai 48
 
Health Care and “Barefoot Doctors”
50G. The Obstacles that the Cultural Revolution Faced, and its Shortcomings 52H. Conceptualizing Socialist Society 64(1) Some Important Understandings of the Nature of Socialist Society 64(2) The Role of Mass Organizations 66(3) Dissent and Mass Debate 67(4) The Hundred Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaigns of 1956-57 68(5) The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on Multi-Party Competition 73(6) The Communist Party of India (Maoist) on Socialist Society 75(7) Summing Up 76Conclusion 79Selected Bibliography 82
 
3
 Note: This paper is meant to be read in conjunction with a paper presented to a conference held in Hong Kong in June 2006 on the 40
th
Anniversary of the Cultural Revolution.
This paper is titled “Chinese Foreign Policy During the Maoist Era and its Lessons for Today”— 
by the MLM Revolutionary Study Group. Please write to mlm.rsg@gmail.com  for a copy.
 
A.
 How the Cultural Revolution Affected the Revolutionary Movement in the U.S.
Even before the Cultural Revolution was launched in the mid-1960s, many in theU.S. were surprised and inspired by the exam
 ple of the people of the world‘s most
 populous country successfully driving out the Japanese invaders and the U.S.-backedregime of Jiang Kai-shek. In the anti-war and Black liberation movements, politicalactivists learned of the mass movement of hundreds of millions of Chinese peasants thatcollectivized agriculture within several years. Comparisons between the advances made by socialist China and imperialist-dominated, poverty-stricken India were common
among ‗60s radicals. Moreover, students who rebel
led against being trained as white
collar bureaucrats and for ―ugly American‖ roles were attracted to the Chinese concept of  being ―red and expert‖ because of this concept‘s insistence that revolutionary moral and
 political commitments were not only compatible with developing professional expertise, but were essential to it.In 1963, weeks before the civil rights March on Washington, the revolutionaryBlack nationalist Robert F. Williams
1
was in China, where he called on Mao Zedong.At his request, Mao issued an important internationalist statement in support of the Afro-
American people‘s struggle, which concluded: ―The evil system of colonialism and
imperialism grew on along with the enslavement of the Negroes and the trade in Negroes;it will surely co
me to its end with the thorough emancipation of the black people.‖
1
 
Robert F. Williams (1925-1996) was a pioneer of the modern Black Liberation Movement andits
de facto
international ambassador. As president of the Monroe, North Carolina chapter of the NAACP in the late 1950s, he came under sharp attack from the Ku Klux Klan, local police andother reactionaries. When he urged the local Black community to take up arms in self-defense, hefaced death threats and false charges from local and state police
 — 
and he and his family went intoexile from 1961 to 1969. In Cuba, he continued his activism with a newspaper,
The Crusader 
,and a radio program broadcast throughout the South,
 Radio Free Dixie
. He then came under criticism and attack from both Communist Party USA members in Cuba and some CubanCommunists for his Black Nationalism, which they claimed was splitting the American workingclass.
―There could be no separate black revolt in the United States, the head of Cuban security
told Williams, because white workers must be the primary revolutionary force due to their 
numbers.‖ (Timothy B. Tyson,
 Radio Free Dixie
, p. 296). Williams then left Cuba for Vietnam,where he met with Ho Chi Minh, and traveled to China, where he was welcomed by Mao Zedong.

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