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Atari 800 Hardware Manual, Part2

Atari 800 Hardware Manual, Part2

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Published by rybagz
Atari 800 Hardware Manual, part 2 of 3
Atari 800 Hardware Manual, part 2 of 3

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Published by: rybagz on Sep 15, 2009
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04/30/2013

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There are alotal of fourplayersand four nlsslles.Thefoutnisstles n0aybegroupedtogether and usedas a 5rhplayer,Theseobjectsareposltlonedhorlzontally by8 horizonralposltlonregtslers([PoS (X)).Thesereglsrers naybe reloadedat any rlne byrheproces-sor,allowlng anobject to be repllcatednanytiioes across a horizontalTV 1ine.Theshape of a player-nlsslleis deterElnedbylhedatatn ltsgraphicsreglster(GMF (X)).Playershave independent8 bltgraphtcsreglsters.Thefourlllsslleshave 2blt regtsters(locatedwlthlnolreaddress).Thesereglsters oay alsobe reloadedat afly ttne bytheprocessor,althoughthey ale usuallychanged during horlzontalbLanktlme.The data lneachgiaphicsreglster isplacedon the displayrheneverthe horizontalsynccouflter equaLsthe correspondinghorlzon-ta1posltiontegister.The same data\1111 be displayedevery lineunlessthegraphlcreglstersare reloadedvrith Iredata.Theplayer-ntssilegraphlcregisters rnaybe reloadedby the mlclo-processor(CRAF(X)),orarlonattcallyfron nenory withdlrect meDoryaccess(Dl4A)(seefigureII.3). Theprograr0nerlrusr placerhe objecrgraphicsln Demory, I1'rltethe player-miss1lebase address(PMBASE),andenableplayer-EissileDI'A(DMACTL,GRACTL).The transferof objectgraphlcsfrom rneuoryto dlsplayls then fullyautornaric.PMBASEpeciftesthe nostslgnificanrbyte(MSB)of the addressoftheplayer-nissilegraphics.The locatlonof rhe graphicsforeachoblect isdeterninedby addtngan offsetto PMBASE256(decimal).Thebytesbetrseenthe baseaddressaod the ntsslledara arenot used byAntic,so theyare availableto rhe progranner.Onlythe five noststgnificantbits oIPMBASE reused lrirhstrgle-lineresolutlonand theslx nost stgnlftcantblts are useilwlthtwo-lineresolutior.This !0eansthar thelocation ofthegraphlcs1n nenory1s restllcted!ocertalnpageboundartes.Two-llne reso-Lu-tionneansthat eachbyte of datals repealedforlqlo Ilnes.(seeDI.{ACTL,lt4). 540(decinal)bytes(5X128)are requlredfor rwo-ltneresolutlonandl28O byres(5x256)torone-tineresoiur'ion,Each bytetn rhe player graphicsarearepresenlselghtptxelswhtchareto be displayedonthe correspondtngllne(s)of rheTV screen.AI indlcatesthattheplayer'scolor-luntsto be dtsplayedinthatptxel.Thegraphicsnay be anyrhtng,notJustrectangleslike the onesin ftgureII.3.Theplayergraphlcsmay f111theenttre hetghtof rhescreen orthey maybe onlya coupleof lineshigh ifthe rest ofthedlsplay dara tsal10's.Each byte1n rhe rolssiledlsplayalso represenrsetgi.rt plxels,trropixelsforeach missile.Each ptxelnay be 1, 2,or 4color clocks,andis deterninedby theSIZE registers.Plavfleld:Playfle1dtsalwaysgeneraledby DMA.There axefourpiayfields,eachldenrtfledbyits owncolor-1um reglsterand colllstottdetection.Playfleldlsgeneratedbylwo dlfferen!DMAechnioues:neloorynapand character.Both methods provtdellstsof insE;ctlons1nmenory,independentoftheplayer-r0issilegeneratlon.
 
player-MlsslleSase Address(PMBASE)),ISBof address.Resolutlon lscontrolled by bit 4 of DI4ACTL,PMBASE*100hex)A.DDRESSOFFSETTvo-l1neOne-lineresolutlon resolutlon(hex)(hex)2I
I
II
I
Mlss leNunberTV SCREEN
+180
+200
+280
f300
+380+400
+300M+400PO+400PI+600P2+700P3+800
ior each objec!1slndependentlyby 8horlzontal positlonregasrers..21
iir42lt
i
P2
I'
I
P0l
;i
tlIMOrl-IPl
|.'i
MI
rP3tM3 I
i-T--
rl
tl
tl
| |HorlzonralDosirlon
lt
tl
llsetPlayer-MtssileVer!1ca1screenEach sectlonof memorynaps dlrectlyonlototal height ofTV screen.Objectvertical posltionisdeterninedonly bylts IocatlonIn ltssectionofdeDory.one byre ofoenoryequalsI or 2television linesvertlcally,FigureII.2PLAYER-MISSILEDMAII.6
 
Unl1keplayersand Elssiles,there are oo horlzontal posltlonregtsrersforplayfleld.Each playercan only have one byte ofdisplayperllne.Playfteld,onlhe othet hand, nay requlreup to 48 bytesperlinebecause1t can fll1the entire wldth of the screen.T'here arethree dlfferentplayfieldlrldths:narrow(128colorclocks), standard(160color clocks), and wide(192coLor clocks),The ddth 1sselected by stortnglnto DMACTL. The advantage ofa rarrolrernldlhls that less R.A.lils reql.rlredand fener nachine cycles arestolen forDMA. The0Sgraphlcsmodesuse the standald screen wldth.g!9If3I-!19!:The dlsplay list is asequenceof displayinstructlonsstoredfirrnemory.These lnstructlonsare eithe! one(1)byte orrhree(3)bytes 1ong. The dlsplayllst can be considered a dlsplayprogran,and theDlsplav LlstCounter that fetcheslhese lnstluctlors canbethought of asa dlsplay prograncounler.(10bit counterplus6 bit base reglster.)The dlsplay 1lstcounter can be inirlalized by wrirtng roDLISTITandDIISTL.(orOS shadow registersSDLSTE rd SDLSTL). oncetnltlaltzedthls counler value lsused to address the dlsplay llst, fetch the lnstruc-!ton,dlsplayone(l)to slxteen(16)lines of data on lhe TVscreen,lncrenenttheDlsplay l,1stCounLei, fetch the next dlsplay lnstruction,and soon&.ltonatlcally irlthout Elcroprocessor control(seeDLISTI andDIISTII). DLISTIandDLISTH shouldbe aLteredonly during vertlcalblankor when DMA1s disabled(seeDI,IACTL).Each lnstructlon deftnes thetype(alphacharacter or nemory map) andthe resolutlon(s1zeof blts on screen) and thelocatlon of dataln neroryto be dlsplayed for agroup(Ito 16) of l1nes. Eachgroupof lines tsca11ed a dlsplay b1ock.TITE DISPI-AY I-IST CANNOTCROSSA lK BYTE MEMORY OIINDARY NLESSA JUMP INSTRUCTION S USED.Flxed(6btrs)
counterDISPLAYLIST COUNTER
DI,ISTI,(10blts)
tr.7

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