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2.0 Electricity - Elect-Energy & Power

# 2.0 Electricity - Elect-Energy & Power

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09/29/2014

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TOPICS : ELECTRICITYCONTENT : ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWERCHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS( 30 minutes)1.2. Example 1a). What is the power of a lamp rated at 12 V 3 A ?
ELECTRICALENERGYDefinition
Electrical Energy(E)
The work done tomove the chargesthrough a circuit.
The Potentialdifference(V)
The work done (W)to move one unitcharge(Q) betweentwo terminal
V =
Q

Therefore,
W = E = VQ

E = VQ,substitutingQ= It
E = It
Where I = electriccurrentt= time takenSubstituting V = IR
E = I
2
Rt
Substituting I =
R

E =
R
2

ElectricalPower

DefinitionThe rate of transfer Of electrical energyP =
VIt
= VISustituting V =IR
P = I
2
R
Substituting I =
R
,
P =
R
2

SI UnitW or Js
-1

2
b). How many joules of electrical energy are transferred per second by12 V 2 A lamp ?.Solution :a) Given V = 12 V and I = 3 A b). Given V = 12 V and I = 2 AP = VI E = VIt= E = VIt=Example 2a) A filament lamp is rated 60 W and 240 V . Find(i) the current flowing through the lamp,(ii) the resistance of the filament and(iii) the energy produced by the lamp in one hour.Solution :Given: Power , P = 60 W and potential difference, V = 240 V(i) Using P = I V,Therefore, I =
P
=
24060
= 0.25 A(ii) Using P =
R
2
Therefore, R =
P
2
=
60)240(
2
= 960
(ii) Given : time, t = 1 hour = 1x 60 x 60 = 3600 sEnergy produced E = P t,= 60 x 3600= 216000 J= 2.16 x 10
5

3

Energy Efficiency
1.2.
Choose the right appliances(such as air-conditioner suited to the size of buildingor room).Buy energy-efficientappliancesUse appliances wisely,e.g.avoid peak hoursFix leaks in duct systemsand insulate the ductsReplace light bulbs(whichgenerate more heat)withmore efficient fluorescentlights.Clean or replace filters of heating or cooling system.Dirty filters restrict airflow,hence the system runslonger and increases energy

usageNo wastage.Turn off appliances whennot in use and heat up water according to need
.
Ways of increasing Energyefficiency
Power rating
Rate of consumptionOf energy by anappliance as shownon the appliance
Efficiency
Ratio of work outputto energy input.Given in the form of percentage
EnergyEfficiency
Efficiency = Output power x 100 %Input power