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2.3 and 2.4 Electricity

# 2.3 and 2.4 Electricity

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05/11/2014

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TOPIC: ELECTRICITY
CONTENT: 2.3: ANALYSING SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITSCHAPTER HIGHLIGHT:The are two types of electric circuit:
series
and
parallel
.1. To identify series and parallel circuits we can see like that.Series circuitConsider a circuit which has two lamps connecting to a cell.All the electrons that go through one lamp must also go through the other.We say that the lamps are connected
in series.
Parallel CircuitsConnect a battery to two lamps in the way shown below.We say these two lamps are connected
in parallel
. There is more than one pathin which the electrons can flow in the circuit.

Comparison between series and parallel circuitsSeries

ParallelArrangement
II
Total
= I
1
= I
2
= I
3
The current should be the sameat all pointsI
T otal
= I
1
+ I
2
+ 1
3
At the junctions, the current splits,but then rejoin at the final junctions.VV
Total
= V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
The sum of the voltage acrossthe individual component isequal to that of power supplyV
Total
= V
1
= V
2
= V
3
Voltage across each componentstays the sameR R
Total
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
The total resistance R
T
of theresistors connected in seriescircuit is equal to the sum of theseparate resistance
Total
R
1
=
1
1
R
+
2
1
R
+
3
1
R
The reciprocal of the total resistanceis equal to the sum of the reciprocalof individual resistances

ACTIVITY :
1. Figure 1 shows a circuit consisting of a battery of e.m.f 6.0V and two pairsof 3.0
Ώ
resistors in series, these pairs of resistors being connected in parallel.Figure 1a) (i) What is the total resistance of the path KLM ?(ii) What is the total resistance of the path KNM ?(iii) What is the resistance of the circuit between K and M ?b) Calculate the current through the battery.
Solution:
(a) (i) Total resistance KLM = 3.0 + 3.0 = 6.0
Ώ
(ii) Total resistance KNM = 3.0 + 3.0 = 6.0
Ώ
(iii) Resistance between K and M =
6.06.06.0x6.0
+
= 3.0
Ώ
(b) Current through battery =
R
=
0.30.6