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Published by manoj verma
HI, this is manoj verma an mba student from IMSAR(ROHTAK, HARYANA). these notes will help in understanding TCP/IP.
Plz leave ur comment.
HI, this is manoj verma an mba student from IMSAR(ROHTAK, HARYANA). these notes will help in understanding TCP/IP.
Plz leave ur comment.

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Published by: manoj verma on Sep 16, 2009
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TCP/IP Reference Model
The historical and technical standard of the Internet is the TCP/IP model. The U.S.Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP reference model, because it wanted todesign a network that could survive any conditions, including a nuclear war.In a world connected by different types of communication media such as copper wires,microwaves, optical fibers and satellite links, the DoD wanted transmission of packetsevery time and under any conditions. This very difficult design problem brought aboutthe creation of the TCP/IP model.Unlike the proprietary networking technologies mentioned earlier, TCP/IP was developedas an open standard. This meant that anyone was free to use TCP/IP. This helped speed upthe development of TCP/IP as a standard.The TCP/IP model has the following four layers (see Figure 2.3):
Application layer 
Transport layer 
Internet layer 
 Network access layer 
Figure 2.3: TCP/IP Layers
Although some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in theOSI model, the layers of the two models do not correspond exactly. Most notably, theapplication layer has different functions in each model.The designers of TCP/IP felt that the application layer should include the OSI session and presentation layer details. They created an application layer that handles issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control.The transport layer deals with the quality of service issues of reliability, flow control, anderror correction. One of its protocols, the transmission control protocol (TCP), provides
excellent and flexible ways to create reliable, well-flowing, low-error networcommunications.TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. It maintains a dialogue between source anddestination while packaging application layer information into units called segments.Connection-oriented does not mean that a circuit exists between the communicatingcomputers. It does mean that Layer 4 segments travel back and forth between two hoststo acknowledge the connection exists logically for some period.The purpose of the Internet layer is to divide TCP segments into packets and send themfrom any network. The packets arrive at the destination network independent of the paththey took to get there. The specific protocol that governs this layer is called the InternetProtocol (IP). Best path determination and packet switching occur at this layer.The relationship between IP and TCP is an important one. IP can be thought to point theway for the packets, while TCP provides a reliable transport.The name of the network access layer is very broad and somewhat confusing. It is alsoknown as the host-to-network layer. This layer is concerned with all of the components, both physical and logical, that are required to make a physical link. It includes thenetworking technology details, including all the details in the OSI physical and data link layers.There are some of the common protocols specified by the TCP/IP reference model layers.Some of the most commonly used
application layer protocols
include the following:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Domain Name System (DNS)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)The common
transport layer protocols
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)The primary protocol of the
Internet layer
Internet Protocol (IP)The network access layer refers to any particular technology used on a specific network.Regardless of which network application services are provided and which transport protocol is used, there is only one Internet protocol, IP. This is a deliberate designdecision. IP serves as a universal protocol that allows any computer anywhere tocommunicate at any time.
OSI Versus TCP/IP Reference Model
A comparison of the OSI model and the TCP/IP models will point out some similaritiesand differences.
OSI and TCP/IP reference model have the following major similarities:
Both have layers.
Both have application layers, though they include very different services.
Both have comparable transport and network layers.
Both models need to be known by networking professionals.
Both assume packets are switched. This means that individual packets may takedifferent paths to reach the same destination. This is contrasted with circuit-switchednetworks where all the packets take the same path.
OSI and TCP/IP reference model have the following main differences:
TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its applicationlayer.
TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network accesslayer.
TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers.
TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the Internet developed, so theTCP/IP model gains credibility just because of its protocols. In contrast, networksare not usually built on the OSI protocol, even though the OSI model is used as aguide.
Gopher protocol is used by the gopher system that was designed at the university of Minnesota and named after the schools Athletic teams, the golden Gophers (meaning Go for i.e. go fetch). It is an information retrieval scheme, conceptually similar to the web itself, butsupporting text and no images. When the user logs into a gopher server, he is presented witha menu of files and directories, any of which can be linked to another gopher menu anywherein the world.

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