IEEE Communications Magazine • November 2006
client interface, respectively, and they are con-nected through the CSS. The breakthrough inthis architecture is global, any-port-to-any-port,any-port-to-any-wavelength, and any-wavelength-to- any-wavelength aggregation and grooming. Itimplies the minimization of equipment ports byeliminating inter-ring crossconnect and clientinterface fragmentation. Please refer to  fordetailed analysis of architectural and economicbenefits of integrated architectures compared tothe overlay architecture shown in Fig. 1.
The technological platforms surveyed above,together with the deployed fiber strands, are thebasic components of a transport network. Thefundamental building blocks of a design processare as follows.
The required data to warrant acorrect network design when input to the designroutines:•Point-to-point traffic demand. There may bemultiple types of demand. Each type of demand can be represented by an
matrix where the intersection of row
represents a demand that origi-nates from node
and terminates at node
.•Network data. This includes a list of net- work nodes, their locations given in theform of coordinates or span distances orboth, the fiber connectivity among thenodes, and, in multiperiod or growth sce-narios, the existing network equipment line-up and configuration. Also, costinformation for the spans (e.g., fiber) andequipment (e.g., line cards) is very impor-tant for optimization of the network. Net- work protection schemes have a big impacton the routing behavior of design routines.In SONET design the protection schemesare bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR),unidirectional path switched ring (UPSR),dedicated path protection mesh (DPPM),or shared path protection mesh (there aremore varieties of mesh protection schemesthan ring, but they lack standardization).DWDM design has comparable orBLSR/UPSR-like network protections.•Optical properties. These are the opticalcharacteristics of the optical transportequipment and the fiber types to be used inthe network design.
SONET network design routine.
This func-tional routine does the network topology design,such as construction of rings, routing of demandfrom origination to destination, grooming of traffic demand to efficiently share the transportfacilities, and association of routed demand tothe most appropriate SONET transport unit(e.g., OC-48 or OC-192), all on a optimizationbasis under the constraints given in the networkdata.
SONET network design output.
•Tributary and/or nodal information. On aper node basis, this describes in detail theterminating ports for each transport unitthat stops by each of the nodes. For exam-ple, at node
, an OC-192 ring stops by andadds/drops 20 DS3s, 13 OC-3s, and 5 OC-12s; an OC-48 stops by the same node andadds/drops 15 DS3s and 8 OC-3s; and soon. It also gives information on how crossring traffic goes, such as two OC-3s droppedfrom ring 4 and added to ring 2. This out-put information is also the input informa-tion for the MSPP configuration routine.•SONET link information. It gives point-to-point SONET logical links in OC-
=12, 48, or 192). This output informationbecomes the input as point-to-point wave-length traffic demand for the DWDM net- work design routine in SONET-over-DWDM scenarios.
SONET MSPP configuration routine.
Thisroutine uses the tributary/nodal informationfrom the SONET network design routine toequip each node with the correct number or type
The SONET-DWDM integrated architectures (AOW and CSS).
Central STS-1 switch
T r a n s - c e i v e r
T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L
/Gigabit Ethernet/data services
T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F C l i e n t I / F T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s - c e i v e r T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L T r a n s p o n d e r A D M - o n - W L
WSSMux/demuxCentral STS switch architectureWSSMux/demuxROADMOC-
/Gigabit Ethernet/data servicesWSS
T r a n s p o n d e r T r a n s p o n d e r
New integrated platforms have beendeveloped in aneffort to eliminate or reduce the costincurred in theinterconnectionbetween MSPPs and ROADMs, as well asto enhance the power of aggregation. AOW isan implementationof SONET ADM or MSPP functionality directly into atransponder card.