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Designing Hybrid SONET and DWDM Networks

Designing Hybrid SONET and DWDM Networks

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IEEE Communications Magazine • November 2006
106
0163-6804/06/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE
T
OPICSIN
O
PTICAL
C
OMMUNICATIONS
I
NTRODUCTION
Transport network design is so important to ser- vice providers that good design practices cansave carriers millions of dollars in transportequipment and fiber costs. Synchronous opticalnetwork (SONET) was the dominant technologydeployed in all metro and long distance net- works for many years. Thus, the design of SONET transport networks has been practicedagain and again, and the methodologies or algo-rithms adopted in SONET network design toolshave constantly been improved. Regardless of the fact that the major optimization algorithmsin routing and resource allocation all, unfortu-nately, fall into the NP-complete class, most net- work designers feel comfortable having theirdesign tools create a suboptimal network design.SONET network design has already become aset of routine processes, rather than new chal-lenges each time a new design task arrives.The class NP is the set of decision problemsthat can be solved by a nondeterministic Turingmachine in polynomial time. An NP-completeproblem is defined as a problem in NP, and anyother decision problems can be reduced to it bypolynomial transformations. So NP-completeproblems are the toughest problems in NPbecause if any NP-complete problem can besolved in polynomial time, so can all NP prob-lems. For detailed definitions please refer to [1].NP-complete problems are informally those thatcan be solved by a computer, which simulates adeterministic Turing machine (computable) butin an impractically long time (intractable). Thisis because the solution space of an NP-completeproblem is too large to be searched exhaustivelyin a reasonable time to find an optimal solution.Compromises have been made in finding thealgorithms that solve NP-complete problems byintelligently searching only part of the solutionspace in a reasonable time, but most likely witha suboptimal solution. This is why an expensivedesign tool sometimes delivers a very poor net- work solution.For design of an optical-only network withdense wavelength-division multiplexing(DWDM) technology, the routing part of thedesign is very much like SONET design, but onlydeals with traffic at the wavelength level, such as2.5 or 10 Gb/s wavelengths. Topological designshould be different from that of SONET. Usinga ring design as an example, a topological ring of the DWDM network should be extended tomore network elements than in SONET to takefull advantage of the bandwidth provided in asingle pair of fibers that require just a single setof engineered optical amplifiers, dispersion com-pensation modules, and regenerators. Anotherimportant part of DWDM network design isdealing with the optical properties, such aspower loss and dispersion, that are nonlinear variables of the transport distances. The opticalproperties are very equipment- and fiber-specif-ic. Each vendor of different optical gear using adifferent type of fiber will need a separate set of rules to engineer the links of the network. But inany case, these rules are fixed once the hard- ware, and therefore the optical properties, of theequipment are determined. Thus, the designprocess is still quite routine. A new network design challenge has becomeimminent only when carriers came to the realiza-tion that combining the fine granularity of SONET with the vast capacity of DWDM willbring the ultimate efficiency and economy intotheir transport networks. Literature in [2–4] hasformal proofs that subwavelength groomingthrough SONET improves network utilizationand economy. The challenge now is to design ahybrid network with both SONET and DWDMtechnologies where the intermixing is optimizedin cost and utilization before any new designtools become available.In the beginning, the technological platformsfor the design of hybrid networks included theSONET add/drop multiplexer (ADM), alsoknown as a multiservice provisioning platform
 Sunan Han, Fujitsu Network Communications
 A
BSTRACT
To take full advantage of SONET granularityand DWDM capacity, the two technologies mustbe combined to enable deployment of the mosteconomic transport networks. The emergence of integrated SONET and DWDM platforms isalso part of the effort to build a hybrid networkto achieve this objective. It then poses a newchallenge to network designers in designing net- works mixed with MSPP, ROADM, and inte-grated platforms. This article provides guidelineson recognizing different types of hybrid net- works and how to accomplish the design task byusing existing design tools or procedures.
Designing Hybrid SONET andDWDM Networks
 
IEEE Communications Magazine • November 2006
107
(MSPP) today, and the optical ADM (OADM)for DWDM or WDM. In recent years, new plat-forms that integrate SONET and DWDM intoone system have emerged. They are the ADM-on-a-wavelength (AOW) platform and the cen-tralized STS switch (CSS) platform, which weredocumented initially in [5]. Before the emer-gence of integrated platforms, the design of SONET and DWDM hybrid networks solelyrelied on an overlay architecture where the ADM was overlaid on top of DWDM gear. Thisoverlay architecture was well documented in [6].Hybrid network designs were conducted toachieve specific analytical results around thisarchitecture [3, 4], where SONET and DWDMnetworks were designed independently byrespective design procedures.It is a new challenge to incorporate integrat-ed platforms into design methodologies and bestrealize their benefits. This article intends to pro- vide some general methodologies for the designof hybrid networks with integrated platforms, as well as standalone ADMs/OADMs, using exist-ing SONET and DWDM design procedures.This article identifies two types of hybridSONET and DWDM network architectures — vertically hybrid and horizontally hybrid archi-tectures — and discusses methodologies to tack-le each of them.
T
ECHNOLOGICAL
P
LATFORMS FOR
T
RANSPORT
N
ETWORKS
The evolution of SONET is marked by thereplacement of the legacy ADM, which handlesone ring at a time and transports exclusivelytime-division multiplexing (TDM) traffic in amultishelf architecture, by the MSPP, which ter-minates and crossconnects multiple rings ormesh links and provides data services all in a sin-gle shelf [7]. This evolution has greatly reducedthe per STS-1 end-to-end transport cost, as wellas central office (CO) operation cost due tooffice space and power consumption reductions.Meanwhile, the rise of DWDM technologyhas brought tremendous bandwidth and fiberrelief to the transport network. DWDM was firstadopted by long distance carriers because thespending in amplification, dispersion compensa-tion, and regeneration made up most of the net- work equipment cost in regional and nationalSONET networks. DWDM became more andmore popular in metro networks when the localexchange carriers grew their networks. Otherthan fiber exhaustion, traffic volume is the majoreconomic factor for deploying DWDM technolo-gy in metro networks [8].The basic architecture of a two-degreeOADM includes a pair of wavelength multiplex-ers/demultiplexers (muxes/demuxes) and a set of transponders. Each transponder terminates a wavelength from a mux/demux and connects toclient equipment for service delivery. A reconfig-urable OADM (ROADM) is an enhancedOADM that crossconnects wavelengths and iscapable of terminating more than two fiberdegrees. The wavelength-selective switch (WSS)is a recent technology adopted by mostROADMs to dynamically route and terminate wavelengths due to better optical attributes thanother technologies [9]. For the architecture of anROADM, please refer to Figs. 1 and 2.Original hybrid network designs utilized anoverlay architecture [3, 4]. Figure 1 shows suchan architecture with two different ways to inter-connect the MSPP and ROADM platforms.When line cards with wideband optics (WBOC192 in the picture) are used in the MSPP, theinterconnection must be through transponders inthe ROADM to transform the “uncolored”optics into “colored” optics required by DWDMtechnology. Narrowband line cards (NB OC192in the picture) can also be used in MSPP. Theyare already colored and can be directly connect-ed to the optical mux/demux. They are usuallymore expensive than wideband cards, but fre-quently the economic choice in the one-for-twotrade: each narrowband line card replaces a wideband line card and a transponder.New integrated platforms have been devel-oped in an effort to eliminate or reduce the costincurred in the interconnection between MSPPsand ROADMs, as well as to enhance the powerof aggregation. AOW is an implementation of SONET ADM or MSPP functionality directlyinto a transponder card. The left half of Fig. 2shows a ROADM with the AOW architecture. Apair of ADM-capable transponder cards formsan MSPP that is capable of supporting a SONETring with all of the standard features and STS-1grooming capabilities. A 10 Gb/s card supportsan OC-192 ring via a 10 Gb/s wavelength, and a2.5 Gb/s card supports an OC-48 ring via a 2.5Gb/s wavelength, from/to the west or eastmux/demux. The tributary side of the transpon-der interfaces with multiple client services fromOC-3 to OC-48 to Gigabit Ethernet.The right half of Fig. 2 depicts the other inte-grated architecture that utilizes a CSS. In thisarchitecture, the optical and electrical parts of atransponder are separated as transceiver and
I
Figure 1.
The MSPP-ROADM overlay architecture.
DS3/OC-
N
 / 
Fast
 / 
Gigabit EthernetW
SS
Mux
 / 
demux
       T     r     a     n     s     p     o     n        d     e     r
 
       T     r     a     n     s     p     o     n        d     e     r
M
S
PPWB
OC
192WB
OC
192WB
OC
192WB
OC
192NB
OC
192NB
OC
192NB
OC
192NB
OC
192
S
T
S
switchR
O
A
D
MW
SS
Mux
 / 
demux
       T     r     a     n     s     p     o     n        d     e     r       T     r     a     n     s     p     o     n        d     e     r
 
IEEE Communications Magazine • November 2006
108
client interface, respectively, and they are con-nected through the CSS. The breakthrough inthis architecture is global, any-port-to-any-port,any-port-to-any-wavelength, and any-wavelength-to- any-wavelength aggregation and grooming. Itimplies the minimization of equipment ports byeliminating inter-ring crossconnect and clientinterface fragmentation. Please refer to [5] fordetailed analysis of architectural and economicbenefits of integrated architectures compared tothe overlay architecture shown in Fig. 1.
SONET-DWDM H
 YBRID
N
ETWORK 
D
ESIGN
B
UILDING
B
LOCKS
The technological platforms surveyed above,together with the deployed fiber strands, are thebasic components of a transport network. Thefundamental building blocks of a design processare as follows.
Input data.
The required data to warrant acorrect network design when input to the designroutines:Point-to-point traffic demand. There may bemultiple types of demand. Each type of demand can be represented by an
 N 
×
 N 
matrix where the intersection of row
i
andcolumn
 j
represents a demand that origi-nates from node
i
and terminates at node
 j
.Network data. This includes a list of net- work nodes, their locations given in theform of coordinates or span distances orboth, the fiber connectivity among thenodes, and, in multiperiod or growth sce-narios, the existing network equipment line-up and configuration. Also, costinformation for the spans (e.g., fiber) andequipment (e.g., line cards) is very impor-tant for optimization of the network. Net- work protection schemes have a big impacton the routing behavior of design routines.In SONET design the protection schemesare bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR),unidirectional path switched ring (UPSR),dedicated path protection mesh (DPPM),or shared path protection mesh (there aremore varieties of mesh protection schemesthan ring, but they lack standardization).DWDM design has comparable orBLSR/UPSR-like network protections.Optical properties. These are the opticalcharacteristics of the optical transportequipment and the fiber types to be used inthe network design.
SONET network design routine.
This func-tional routine does the network topology design,such as construction of rings, routing of demandfrom origination to destination, grooming of traffic demand to efficiently share the transportfacilities, and association of routed demand tothe most appropriate SONET transport unit(e.g., OC-48 or OC-192), all on a optimizationbasis under the constraints given in the networkdata.
SONET network design output.
Tributary and/or nodal information. On aper node basis, this describes in detail theterminating ports for each transport unitthat stops by each of the nodes. For exam-ple, at node
 X 
, an OC-192 ring stops by andadds/drops 20 DS3s, 13 OC-3s, and 5 OC-12s; an OC-48 stops by the same node andadds/drops 15 DS3s and 8 OC-3s; and soon. It also gives information on how crossring traffic goes, such as two OC-3s droppedfrom ring 4 and added to ring 2. This out-put information is also the input informa-tion for the MSPP configuration routine.SONET link information. It gives point-to-point SONET logical links in OC-
 N 
(
 N 
=12, 48, or 192). This output informationbecomes the input as point-to-point wave-length traffic demand for the DWDM net- work design routine in SONET-over-DWDM scenarios.
SONET MSPP configuration routine.
Thisroutine uses the tributary/nodal informationfrom the SONET network design routine toequip each node with the correct number or type
I
Figure 2.
The SONET-DWDM integrated architectures (AOW and CSS).
Central STS-1 switch
    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r
ADM-on-WL architectureWSSMux/demuxROADM
    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L
OC-
N
 /Gigabit Ethernet/data services
    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    C    l    i   e   n    t    I    /    F    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s  -   c   e    i   v   e   r    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    A    D    M  -   o   n  -    W    L
WSSMux/demuxCentral STS switch architectureWSSMux/demuxROADMOC-
N
 /Gigabit Ethernet/data servicesWSS
    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r    T   r   a   n   s   p   o   n    d   e   r
Mux/demux
New integrated  platforms have beendeveloped in aneffort to eliminate or reduce the costincurred in theinterconnectionbetween MSPPs and ROADMs, as well asto enhance the power of aggregation. AOW isan implementationof SONET ADM or MSPP functionality directly into atransponder card.

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