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Software Engineering

Software Engineering

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Published by: rajashekarpula on Sep 17, 2009
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12/03/2010

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* Software Engineering *
A
Component
is a tested, special purpose software unit which is reusable,adaptable, portable and interoperable. In software terms, components arealso called
componentware (CM)
.
Framework 
is the combination of components that can be plugged into anapplication. A
Software interface
is the program that makes it possible focomponents to interact and interoperate with each other. Eg. JAVABEANS(
DCOM
is abbreviated as Distributed Component Object Model. )
Software Entities
are the processes, requirements, products and resourcesof a software engineering landscape. An
Engineering approach
to software engineering is to produce systemon time and within budget.Software Development
problems
are :1) Conceptual problem.2) Representation problem. 
Vanilla Framework 
helps to bridge gap between a high level solution, toa problem and its implementation in software.
Software Requirement Specification (SRS)
: This is a blueprint for thecomplete design of a software product.
Quality Factors
: correctness, reliability, maintainability, testability,efficiency, integrity, usability, portability, interoperability, reusability. 
Reusability Criterion :Self Descriptive
: this is with natural language.
Modularity
: means change in one component has minimal impact onother.
Portability
: means transfer of software from one system to other.
Platform Independence
means it can execute on any type of platform. 
Incremental Approach
to software development has been formulated by
watts Humphrey
.
Clean Room Engineering
is used to control the quality of incrementallydeveloped software product and to certify the fitness of software productsfor usage at time of delivery. 
CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL (CMM) :
CMM describes software process management maturity relative to fivelevels
 
ie., Initial, Repeatable, Defined, Managed, OptimizingIn the
Initial level
there is a lack of planning and the developmentof a clear-cut guide that software development teams can follow. Fewdetails of a software process have been defined at this level. Good resultsare considered miraculous.
KPA ---- Key Process Areas
In the
Second level ie., the CMM Repeatable Process
ischaracterized by a commitment to discipline in carrying out a softwaredevelopment project.
And is achieved by :
Requirements management,software project planning, software project tracking and oversight,software subcontract management, software quality assurance, softwareconfiguration management.In the
Third level ie., the CMM Defined Process
is to guide thestructuring and evaluation of a software project.
And is achieved by :
Organizational process focus and definition, training program, software product engineering, inter group coordination, peer reviews.In the
Fourth level ie., the CMM Managed Process
is for datagathering and analysis and managing software quality.
And is achievedby :
Quantitative process management, Software quality management.In the
Fifth level ie., the CMM Optimizing Process
is associatedwith defect prevention, automation of the software process wherever  possible, and methods for improving software quality and team productivity and shortening development time. 
Validation
occurs whenever a system component is evaluated to ensurethat it satisfies system requirements.
Verification
consists in checking whether the product of a particular phasesatisfies the conditions imposed at that phase. 
Software Evolution :
This is characterized by genotypes and phenotypes.A
genotype
provides information about a member of a population.A
phenotype
characterizes the behavior of a population member.Evolution pattern = where || why || what || when || how || by-whom. 
Software Life-Cycle :
This is the period of time beginning with a conceptfor a software product and ending whenever the software is no longer available for use.The Software life-cycle typically includes the following:Requirements, Analysis, Design, construction, testing (Validation),installation, operation, maintenance, and retirement.Several models (spiral, waterfall etc.) have been proposed todescribe this process. 
Software Life-Cycle Model
represents the activities, their inputs andoutputs and their interactions during the life-cycle.
Software Life-Cycle Models :
 
 What is Software Engineering ?The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approachto development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is, theapplication of engineering to software.The specification, development, management, and evolution of software systems.A discipline whose aim is the production of quality software,delivered on time, within budget, and satisfying users' needs.Designing and developing high-quality software. Application of computer science techniques to a variety of problems. What is a CASE tool ?CASE stands for Computer Aided Software Engineering; it can beused to mean any computer-based tool for software planning,development, and evolution.What is a Function Point ?Function points and feature points are methods of estimating the"amount of functionality" required for a program, and are thus used toestimate project completion time. The basic idea involves counting inputs,outputs, and other features of a description of functionality. What is a Spiral Model ?Basically, the idea is evolutionary development, using the waterfallmodel for each step; it's intended to help manage risks. Don't define indetail the entire system at first.The developers should only define the highest priority features. Defineand implement those, then get feedback from users/customers (suchfeedback distinguishes "evolutionary" from "incremental" development).With this knowledge, they should then go back to define andimplement more features in smaller chunks. What is a Spec Mark?SPEC mark refers to the results of the first suite What is Hungarian Notation?A naming convention for C code. What is SEI Maturity Model?First step in improving the existing situation is to get management buy-in and management action to clean up the software management processes.Second step (Integration) is to get everyone working together as ateam.

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