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Hr Job Description &Job Specification

Hr Job Description &Job Specification

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Published by emmanuel

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Published by: emmanuel on Sep 17, 2009
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Job Description (JD)
Job Description and Job Specification
Job description and job specification are the names given to the written and speciallydesigned summary of significant findings from job analysis. Actually these are the by- products of job analysis process. Though both are the descriptions but they give differentinformation. Thus, both these documents are distinct and different in nature but both arecomplementary. Both help in the proper selection, training and development program aswell as in job evaluation.1. While job description contains the main characteristics of the job, job specificationis the outline of personnel qualification regarded as essential to .perform the job.2. Job description describes in full about the job while job specification describes person's ability and qualifications required to perform the job.3. Job description is the standard of job while job specification is the reflection of theideal person required to do the job.
Definition of Job Description
Edwin B. Flippo:
"The first and immediate product of the job analysis is the jobdescription. As its title indicates, this document is basically descriptive in nature andconstitutes a record of existing and pertinent job facts."
Contents of Job Description
1. Proper job title:
The job title should be short, definite and suggestive of the natureof the job. The desirable qualities of job-holder should be clear from the title so thatevery job should be distinguished from one another.
2. Job summary:
The findings of the job analysis should be summarized so that allthe necessary facts may be incorporated in paragraphs to make it convenient to identifythe job. Primary, secondary and job other duties to be performed on the job should clearly be indicated separately.
3. Job location:
It is where
i.e.,
in what department the job is to be performed. Itshould be given in the description.
4. Duties and responsibilities:
The duties and responsibilities to be performed on the
 
 job should be written in the job description arranged in chronological order with proper classification as primary, secondary and other duties. Time taken in performing the joband sub-jobs should also, be mentioned.
5. Degree of supervision:
The degree of supervision, required on each job should bementioned in job description, while unskilled job require close supervision skilled or supervisory or managerial jobs require less supervision or no supervision.
6. Required machines, tools and materials:
The machines, tools, equipment andmaterials required in the performance of each job should also be included in jobdescription to indicate the nature and complexity of the job and help devising the training programmes.
7. Description of relation to other jobs:
Description of relation
 
to other jobsintensifies the vertical relationship of promotion and horizontal relationship of work-flowand procedures.
8. Description of working conditions:
The description of working conditions, the job hazards and physical surroundings within the working area will be helpful in jobevaluation.
9. Description of amendments:
Job description should be elastic enough as toincorporate all necessary amendments from time to time to make it up-to-date.
10. Mention of policies:
The policies for the job-holder should be mentioned in the job description.
Uses of Job Description
1. Preliminary drafts can be used as a basis for productive group discussion, particularly if the process starts at the executive level.2. It aids in the development of jobs specifications, which are useful in planningrecruitment, in training and in hiring people with required skills.3. It can be used to orient new employees toward basic responsibilities and duties.4. It is a basic document used in developing performance standards.5. It can be used for job evaluation, a wage and salary administration technique.6. It enables the manager to frame suitable questions to be asked during an interview.It is particularly helpful when the application from is used as a tool for eliminating theunfit personnel.
 
A job description becomes a vehicle for organizational change and improvement
.
Ithelps top executives, to jointly discuss one another's responsibilities. Overlapping or confusion can be pointed out; questions can be raised about the major thrust of each position, and problems of structure can be identified.
Limitations of Job Description
1.Job descriptions do not perfectly reflect the job. They seek to differentiate itfrom other jobs and set its outer limits2. Jobs tend to be dynamic, not static, and a job description can quickly go outof date. Therefore, jobs should be constantly revised and kept up-to-date.The job description helps in preparing specification for each job. So it is a product of  job analysis. It is a statement of maximum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform job satisfactorily. It is a written record of the physical, mental, social, psychological and behavioral characteristics which a person should possess in order to perform the job effectively.Edwin B Flippo defines, “ A job specification is a statement of minimum acceptablehuman qualities necessary to perform a job properly.The above definition reveals the following aspect of job specification.1.it is a statement which shows a summary of personnel requirements for a job2.it specifies the type of person required in terms of qualification, experience,aptitude, age etc.3.it is also treated as a standard of personnel for the selectionIn short, job specification is a profile list of personal qualification and personal traitsdeemed necessary for a job. In other words, job specification is the requirements in termsof qualification, experience, technical and human skills and other personal characteristicsto perform the work effectively. It tells what kind of person is required for a given job...

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