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Hr Manpower Planning

Hr Manpower Planning

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Published by: emmanuel on Sep 17, 2009
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01/06/2013

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MANPOWER PLANNING
Man power planning or human resource planning is “the process by whichmanagement determines how an organization should move from the currentmanpower to the desired manpower position. Through planning, amanagement strives to have the right number and the right kind of people atthe right place, to do things which result in both individual and theorganization receiving the maximum long range benefit.Coleman has defined human resource or manpower planning as “the processof determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting thoserequirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.”Stainer defines manpower planning as “strategy for the acquisition, utilization,improvement, and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources. It relatesto establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobsdetermining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower.According to Wickstrom, manpower planning consists a series of activities ie1.forecasting future manpower requirements2.making an inventory of present manpower resources3.anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources intothe future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements todetermine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively4.planning recruitment selection, training, development, utilization,transfer, promotion motivation and compensation to ensure that futuremanpower requirements are properly metthus, it will be noted that manpower planning consists in projecting futuremanpower requirements and development manpower plans for theimplementation of the projections.Manpower planning is a double edges sword. If used properly, it leads to themaximum utilization of human resources, reduces excessive labor turnoverand high absenteeism, improves productivity and aids in achievingorganizational goals. If not used properly, it leads to disruption in the flow of work, lower production, less job satisfaction, high cost of production andconstant headaches for management personnel. Therefore, for the success of an enterprise, manpower planning is very important function.For an individual it is important because it helps to improve his skills andpotential to the utmost. For an organization it is important as it improves itsefficiency and productivity. It is only through initial manpower planning thatcapable hands are available for promotion.
NEED FOR MANPOWER PLANNING
Manpower planning is essential because of the following reasons
1.
 To carry out its work, each organization needs personnel with thenecessary qualifications, skills, knowledge, work experience andaptitude foe work. These are provided through effective planning.
2.
Since large number of persons have to be replaced who have grown old,or who retire, die or become incapacitated because of physical or mentalailments, there is a constant need for replacing such persons. Otherwisethe work will suffer.
 
3.
human resource planning is essential because of frequent labor turnoverwhich is unavoidable and even beneficial because it arises from factorswhich are socially and economically sound such as voluntary quits,discharges, marriage etc
4.
In order to meet the needs of expansion programs hr/manpowerplanning is unavoidable.
5.
 The nature of the present workforce in relation to its changing needsalso necessitates the recruitment of new labor. To meet the challenge of new and changing technology and new techniques of production,existing employees need to be trained or new blood injected in anorganization.
6.
manpower is also needed to identify the areas of surplus as well asshoratage of labor
THE OBJECTIVE OF HR/MANPOWER PLANNING
 The objective of manpower planning is to maintain and improve theorganizations ability to achieve its goal by developing strategies that willcontribute its optimum contribution of human resources. Manpower planning isthe responsibility of both line and staff manager. The line management isresponsible to give estimate of manpower requirements and staff manager isresponsible to take actions on selection and recruitment in association withline manager who needs the man power.
BENEFITS OF MANPOWER PLANNING.
Less costs because management can anticipate imbalances before theybecome unmanageable and expensive
More tine is provided to locate the talent
Better opportunities exist to include women and minority groups infuture growth plans
Better planning of assignments to develop managers can be done.
Major and successful demands on local labor markets can be made
PROCESS OF MANPOWER PLANNING
It is a multi-step process as follows
Deciding goals and objectives
Estimating future organizational structure and manpower requirements
Auditing human resources
Planning job requirements and job descriptions
And developing human resource plan
DECIDING OBJECTIVES
In effect the main purpose is one of matching or fitting employee abilities toenterprise requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of presentarrangements. The ultimate mission or purpose is to relate future humanresources to future enterprise needs so as to maximize the future return oninvestment in human resources.
ESTIMATING THE FUTURE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ORFORECASTING THE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS.
 The management must estimate the structure of the organization at a givenpoint of time. The number and type of employees needed have to bedetermined. Many environmental factors affect this determination. Theyinclude business forecasts, expansion, growth, design, structural changes,
 
management philosophy, government policy , product and human mix andcompetitionForecasting is necessary because,
 The eventualities and contingencies of general economic business cycles(such as inflation, wages, prices, costs and raw material supplies) havean influence on the short range and long run plans of all organizations.
An expansion following enlargement and growth in business involves theuse of additional machineries and personnel and a reallocation of facilities, all of which call for advance planning of human resources.
Changes in management philosophies and leadership styles.
 The use of mechanical technology necessitate changes in the skills of workers as well as a change in the number of employees needed.After estimating what future organization structure should be, the next step isto draw up the requirements of manpower, both for existing and newvacancies. For this requirement details should be obtained from variousdepartments. Vacancies occurring in any department should be notified inwriting to the personnel department, stating clearly the number of vacanciesto be filled category or job wise, their qualification and experience and thereasons for acquisition. A statement of duties, type of jobs, pay scale andprevious experience should also be made.In determining the requirements of manpower, the expected losses which arelikely to occur through labor turnover- quits, retirement, death, transfers,promotions, demotions, dismissals. Disability, resignations, lay-offs, and otherseparations – should be taken into account. Additional resources are gainedthrough new employment of personnel, promotions, transfers etc.After making all adjustments, the real shortages and surplus may be found off.If a shortage is there, efforts are made to fill up the vacancies. If there issurplus deal it by transfers, retrenchments etc.
AUDITING HUMAN RESOURCES
Once the future requirement is estimated the next step is to determine thepresent supply of manpower resources. This is done through what is called“skills inventory” which contain data about each employees skills, abilities,work preference which indicated his overall value to the company. Other datapertaining his performance ratings and superior’s evaluation may also betabulated and all these are fed into computers. These details are required bypersonnel departments for transfers, promotions and manpower requirementfilling.
 JOB ANLYSIS
After having decided how many persons would be needed, it is necessary toprepare job analysis, which records details of training, skills, qualification,abilities, experience and responsibilities. Etc which are needed for the job. Jobanalysis include the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications.
DEVELOPING MANPOWER PLAN
 This consists in finding out the sources of labor supply with a view to makingan effective use of these factors. The best policy which is followed by most organizations is to fill up highervacancies by promotion and lower level positions by recruitment from labormarket. A labor market is a geographical area from which employees recruit

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