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Pipeline Design

# Pipeline Design

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08/13/2013

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GEORGEFISCHER…
123456789
5.01
Pipeline Design
Fluid Flow in Steel Pipes5.02 - 5.03Pipeline Sizing - Pressure Loss5.04 - 5.06Fittings - Pressure Loss5.07 - 5.09Water Flow in Straight Pipes - Pressure Loss5.10 - 5.19Useful Pipe Properties5.20Valves - Pressure Loss5.21 - 5.24Compressible Fluids5.25 - 5.27Steam5.28 - 5.29Water Hammer5.30 - 5.32

5
Pages

GEORGEFISCHER…
5.02
ν
=
Density and Viscosity for Water
Temperature Density Absolute viscosity
°
C kg/m
3
Pa s
10 10001.3 x 10
-3
75 9750.4 x 10
-3
150 9170.2 x 10
-3
Fluid Flow in Steel Pipes
The flow of fluids is a complex process,the study of which is known as fluiddynamics. Fluid transport is affected bythe physical properties of the fluid, thetype of flow, the pipe dimensions and theproperties of the pipe material. There arevery few transport problems which canbe completely solved by the purelymathematical equations of fluiddynamics. For everyday situations thesolutions are dependent onexperimentally determined factors, suchas the friction factor. Most real problemscan be solved using the Darcy formula,which relies on this experimental frictionfactor.
Physical Properties of Fluids
The properties relevant to fluid flow aresummarized below.
Density
: This is the mass per unit volumeof the fluid and is generally measured inkg/m
3
. Another commonly used term isspecific gravity. This is in fact a relativedensity, comparing the density of a fluidat a given temperature to that of waterat the same temperature.
ρρ
water
S = specific gravity (dimensionless)
ρ
= density of fluid (kg/m
3
)
ρ

water
= density of water (kg/m
3
)= 1000 at 10
°
C
Viscosity
: This describes the ease withwhich a fluid flows. A substance liketreacle has a high viscosity, while waterhas a much lower value. Gases, such asair, have a still lower viscosity. Theviscosity of a fluid can be described intwo ways.
a)
Absolute (or dynamic) viscosity: Thisis a measure of a fluid's resistance tointernal deformation. It is expressedinpascal seconds (Pa s) or newtonseconds per square metre (Ns/m
2
).[1Pas = 1 Ns/m
2
]
b)
Kinematic viscosity: This is the ratio ofthe absolute viscosity to the densityand is measured in metres squaredper second (m
2
/s).
µρ ν
= kinematic viscosity (m
2
/s)
µ
= absolute viscosity (Pa s or Ns/m
2
)
ρ
= density (kg/m
3
)
Velocity of Fluid
The mean velocity of a fluid is given by:v = QAv = velocity of fluid (m/s)Q = volume flow rate (m
3
/second)A = pipe cross sectional area (m
2
)
Fig. 5.01 Extract from CIBSE Guide C4.3
S =

GEORGEFISCHER…
123456789
5.03
Reynolds Number
A useful factor in determining which typeof flow is involved is the Reynoldsnumber. This is the ratio of the dynamicforces of mass flow to the shearresistance due to fluid viscosity and isgiven by the following formula.vd
i
ν
Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless)d
i
= pipe inside diameter (m)v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
ν
= kinematic viscosity (m
2
/s)In general for a fluid like water when theReynolds number is less than 2000 theflow is laminar. The flow is turbulent forReynolds numbers above 4000. Inbetween these two values(2000
<
Re
<
4000) the flow is a mixture ofthe two types and it is difficult to predictthe behaviour of the fluid.
Types of Fluid Flow
When a fluid moves through a pipe twodistinct types of flow are possible,laminar and turbulent. Laminar flowoccurs in fluids moving with smallaverage velocities and turbulent flowbecomes apparent as the velocity isincreased above a critical velocity. Inlaminar flow the fluid particles movealong the length of the pipe in a veryorderly fashion, with little or no sidewaysmotion across the width of the pipe.Turbulent flow is characterised byrandom, disorganised motion of theparticles, from side to side across thepipe as well as along its length. Therewill, however, always be a layer oflaminar flow at the pipe wall - the so-called 'boundary layer'.The two types of fluid flow are describedby different sets of equations. In general,for most practical situations, the flow willbe turbulent.Re

=
dvvv
Laminar Flow - Re
<
2000Disturbed Turbulent Flow -Re
>
2000 and Re
<
4000Disturbed Turbulent Flow - Re
>
4000
Fig. 5.02Velocity profiles for different types of flow.

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