Density and Viscosity for Water
Temperature Density Absolute viscosity
10 10001.3 x 10
75 9750.4 x 10
150 9170.2 x 10
Fluid Flow in Steel Pipes
The flow of fluids is a complex process,the study of which is known as fluiddynamics. Fluid transport is affected bythe physical properties of the fluid, thetype of flow, the pipe dimensions and theproperties of the pipe material. There arevery few transport problems which canbe completely solved by the purelymathematical equations of fluiddynamics. For everyday situations thesolutions are dependent onexperimentally determined factors, suchas the friction factor. Most real problemscan be solved using the Darcy formula,which relies on this experimental frictionfactor.
Physical Properties of Fluids
The properties relevant to fluid flow aresummarized below.
: This is the mass per unit volumeof the fluid and is generally measured inkg/m
. Another commonly used term isspecific gravity. This is in fact a relativedensity, comparing the density of a fluidat a given temperature to that of waterat the same temperature.
S = specific gravity (dimensionless)
= density of fluid (kg/m
= density of water (kg/m
)= 1000 at 10
: This describes the ease withwhich a fluid flows. A substance liketreacle has a high viscosity, while waterhas a much lower value. Gases, such asair, have a still lower viscosity. Theviscosity of a fluid can be described intwo ways.
Absolute (or dynamic) viscosity: Thisis a measure of a fluid's resistance tointernal deformation. It is expressedinpascal seconds (Pa s) or newtonseconds per square metre (Ns/m
).[1Pas = 1 Ns/m
Kinematic viscosity: This is the ratio ofthe absolute viscosity to the densityand is measured in metres squaredper second (m
= kinematic viscosity (m
= absolute viscosity (Pa s or Ns/m
= density (kg/m
Velocity of Fluid
The mean velocity of a fluid is given by:v = QAv = velocity of fluid (m/s)Q = volume flow rate (m
/second)A = pipe cross sectional area (m
Fig. 5.01 Extract from CIBSE Guide C4.3