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Thesis

Thesis

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Published by: jentayuars on Sep 18, 2009
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12/22/2012

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An abortion is the termination of a pregnancyby the removal or expulsion fromtheuterusof afoetusor embryo, resulting in or caused by its death. An abortion can occur spontaneously due tocomplicationsduring pregnancy or can be induced, inhumans and other species. In the context of human pregnancies, an abortion induced to preserve the health of the gravida(pregnant female) is termed a therapeutic abortion,while an abortion induced for any other reason is termed an elective abortion. The termabortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of ahuman pregnancy, whilespontaneous abortions are usually termedmiscarriages.When talking about abortion, wecan hear many different points of view. Abortion has been a controversial issue since it became monumental in 1973 with the United States Supreme Court’s ruling in favor of Roe vs. Wade. This victory paved the way for women’s human rights. Abortion wasdeclared lawful because of the United States fourteenth amendment of due process. TheUnited States Supreme Court ruled that a mother may abort her fetus until it is viableoutside the womb or to protect the health of the maternal parent. Some people think thatabortion is forbidden and some people think abortion is legal. In religion, there are alsomany different points of views. Some religious groups oppose abortion; some supportaccess to medically supervised abortion; some oppose government restrictions onabortion; and some have no opinion. Manyreligious traditionshave taken a stance onabortion, and these stances span a broad spectrum from acceptance to rejection.Pro-life supporters argue that abortion is morally wrong on the basis that a fetus isan innocenthuman being. Others reject this position by drawing a distinction betweenhuman being and human person, arguing that while the foetus is innocent and biologically human, it is not a person with a right to life. In support of this distinction,
 
some propose a list of criteria as markers of  personhood. For example,Mary Ann Warren  suggestsconsciousnessat least the capacity to feel pain,reasoning,self motivation, the ability tocommunicate, andself-awareness. According to Warren, a being need not exhibit all of these criteria to qualify as a person with a right to life, but if a being exhibitsnone of them or perhaps only one, then it is certainly not a person. Warren concludes thatas the foetus satisfies only one criterion, consciousness and this only after it becomessusceptible to pain,the foetus is not a person and abortion is therefore morally permissible. Other philosophers apply similar criteria, concluding that a fetus lacks aright to life because it lacks self-consciousness, rationality, and autonomy. These listsdiverge over precisely which features confer a right to life, but tend to propose variousdeveloped psychological features not found in fetuses.As for me, I also have my own points of views. For many reason I really disagreed withabortion act. However, it is acceptable depending on the circumstances around the pregnancy. The abortion should be taken if the pregnancy brings bad effect to the mother.For example, the reversible pregnancies, it wills danger the mother’s life as it can lead todeath. In order to avoid the “mother" from death, the abortion is appropriate to do in thiscase. However, if the mother wants to abort the baby because she has not yet readyhaving children, I really object it. This is because although the baby has not seen theworld or knowing what happening around him still it is a human being. Only three weeksliving inside the mother stomach, the baby have already got lungs. Means the baby havestarted breathing, just like normal human being. So why we should kill the innocent
 
 baby? The baby also has a right to live in this world. If the mothers do not ready havingthe baby, why did she “do” it at the first place? Criticism of this line of reasoning followsseveral threads. Some reject the argument on grounds relating to personal identity, holding that the foetus is not the same entity as the adult into which it will develop, andthus that the foetus does not have a "future like ours" in the required sense. Others grantthat the foetus has a future like ours, but argue that being deprived of this future is not asignificant harm or a significant wrong to the foetus, because there are relatively few psychological connections (continuations of memory, belief, desire and the like) betweenthe foetus as it is now and the adult into which it will develop. Another criticism is thatthe argument creates inequalities in the wrongness of killing as the futures of some people, for example the young, bright and healthy appear to be far more valuable or desirable than the futures of other people like the old, depressed and sick, the argumentappears to entail that some killings are far more wrong than others, or that some peoplehave a far stronger right to life than others—a conclusion that is taken to becounterintuitive or unacceptable. Some argue that asgameteshave a similar potential tothe foetus, the argument would entail that contraceptionis as wrong as the killing of an adult human being—a conclusion that is similarly taken to be counterintuitive or unacceptable.Moreover, person who do abortion will feel the pain same as the person whogiving birth. So, if the person aborts the baby, a waste of energy will occurs as there is no baby produce but only a great pain felt. Unsafe abortion remains a public health concern today due to the higher incidence and severity of its associated complications, such asincomplete abortion,sepsis,hemorrhage,and damage to internal organs. WHO estimates

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