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Rescuing Trafficking From Ideological Capture

Rescuing Trafficking From Ideological Capture

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Published by Kate Zen
UPa Law Review, 2010

UPa Law Review, 2010

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Published by: Kate Zen on Jan 12, 2014
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(1655)
 
 ARTICLE
RESCUING TRAFFICKING FROM IDEOLOGICAL CAPTURE: PROSTITUTION REFORM AND ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAW AND POLICY
 J
 ANIE
 A.
 
C
HUANG
 I
NTRODUCTION
 .................................................................................... 1656
 
I. P
ROSTITUTION
EFORM AND THE
 A 
NTI
-
TRAFFICKING
M
OVEMENT
 .................................................... 1660
 
 A.
The Problem of Human Trafficking 
 ..................................... 1660
 
B.
Conflicting Approaches to Prostitution Reform 
 ...................... 1663
 
1. The Neo-abolitionists ............................................ 1664
 
2. The Non-abolitionists ........................................... 1670
 
C.
How Prostitution-Reform Advocacy Intersected with the Anti-trafficking Movement 
 ................................................... 1672
 
1. The U.N. Trafficking Protocol Negotiations ....... 1672
 
2. The U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection  Act of 2000............................................................. 1677
 
II. T
HE
ISE OF
N
EO
-
 ABOLITIONISM
 ................................................. 1680
 
 A.
Anti-prostitution Legal Reforms 
 ........................................... 1683 
 Assistant Professor of Law, American University, Washington College of Law. From 1998 to 1999, the author represented the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Violence  Against Women—an expert of the U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights—during the U.N. Trafficking Protocol negotiations in Vienna. Sincere thanks to the organizers and participants of the
University of Pennsylvania Law Review 
 Symposium, the Feminist Theory Workshop at Columbia Law School, the Faculty Workshop Speaker Series at Washington & Lee Law School, and the Junior Faculty Workshop at the Wash-ington College of Law, where versions of this Article were presented in 2009. I am par-ticularly grateful for the comments provided by Rebecca Cook, Anne Gallagher, Eliza-beth Bernstein, Robert Tsai, Susan Carle, Ann Shalleck, Ann Jordan, Martina  Vandenberg, Ashley Parrish, Lewis Grossman, Benjamin Leff, Heather Hughes, and Fer-nanda Nicola on drafts of this Article. Thanks also to Kyle Ingram and Matthieu Riviere for their research assistance, and to
University of Pennsylvania Law Review 
 editors Jessica Urban and Bud Jerke for their careful review of this Article.
 
1656
University of Pennsylvania Law Review 
 [Vol. 158: 1655
 
1. Anti-prostitution Restrictions on Grant Administration ............................................ 1683
 
2. Anti-prostitution Restrictions on U.S. Government Contractors .............................. 1687
 
3. Targeting “Sex Trafficking” .................................. 1691
 
B.
The Reductive Narrative 
 ...................................................... 1694
 
1. The Focus on Sex Trafficking .............................. 1694
 
2. Conflating Sex Trafficking and Prostitution ....... 1699
 
3. “Militarized Humanitarianism” and “Carceral Feminism” ............................................. 1702
 
III. A 
SSESSING THE
I
MPACT OF THE
P
ROSTITUTION
-R 
EFORM
D
EBATES ON THE
 A 
NTI
-
TRAFFICKING
M
OVEMENT
 ........................ 1705
 
 A.
The Impact on U.S. and International Anti-trafficking Laws 
 .......................................................... 1706
 
B.
The Impact on the Ground 
 ................................................... 1710
 
1. Promoting Stereotypical Perceptions ................... 1710
 
2. HIV/AIDS Prevention .......................................... 1713
 
3. The Rescue Paradigm ........................................... 1715
 
4. Criminalizing Demand ......................................... 1718
 
C.
Ideology Versus Evidence 
 ...................................................... 1721
 
C
ONCLUSION
 ........................................................................................ 1725
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 In the decade since it became a priority on the United States’ na-tional agenda, the issue of human trafficking has spawned enduring controversy. New legal definitions of “trafficking” were codified in in-ternational and U.S. law in 2000, but what conduct qualifies as “traf-ficking” remains hotly contested. Despite shared moral outrage over the plight of trafficked persons, debates over whether trafficking en-compasses voluntary prostitution continue to rend the anti-trafficking advocacy community—and are as intractable as debates over abortion and other similarly contentious social issues. Attempts to equate traf-ficking with slavery invite both disdain and favor: they are often re- jected for their insensitive and legally inaccurate conflation with transatlantic slavery yet simultaneously embraced for capturing the moral urgency of addressing this human rights problem. The anti-trafficking movement itself has been attacked by those who believe it is built on specious statistics concerning the problem’s magnitude and by others who think it undermines human rights goals by drawing at-
 
2010]
Rescuing Trafficking from Ideological Capture 
 1657
 
tention away from migrants’ rights and efforts to combat slavery in all its contemporary forms. U.S. law and policy have fueled controversy over anti-trafficking strategies, both at home and abroad. In 2000, the United States led negotiations over a new international law on trafficking, the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Per-sons, Especially Women and Children (the U.N. Trafficking Proto-col).
1
 At the same time, the United States enacted a comprehensive domestic law on trafficking, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA).
2
 Both instruments define trafficking as the movement or recruitment of men, women, or children, using force, fraud, or coercion, for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary servitude or slavery in one or more of a wide variety of sectors (for example, agriculture, construction, or commercial sex).
3
 These legal defini-tions reflect a concerted effort to move away from traditional perspec-tives that narrowly defined trafficking as the movement or recruitment of women or girls into the sex sector and toward a broader under-standing of the problem as also involving the exploitation of women, men, and children in non-sex sectors.  Although trafficking into non-sex sectors arguably accounts for the larger proportion of trafficking activity,
4
 anti-trafficking laws and policies—both within the United States and abroad—have nonethe-less remained focused on sex-sector trafficking and prostitution. This focus reflects the potent influence of prostitution-reform debates on the anti-trafficking movement. Those debates have embroiled anti-trafficking advocates and policymakers in a struggle over whether prostitution is inherently coercive, and therefore a form of trafficking, or whether the trafficking label should be applied only to instances of
1
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Or-ganized Crime, Nov. 15, 2000, 2237 U.N.T.S. 319 [hereinafter U.N. Trafficking Protocol].
2
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA), Pub. L. No. 106-386, div. A, 114 Stat. 1466 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 8, 18, and 22 U.S.C.),
amended by 
 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (2003 TVPRA), Pub. L. No. 108-193, 117 Stat. 2875 (codified in scattered sections of 8, 18, and 22 U.S.C.), Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (2005 TVPRA), Pub. L. No. 109-164, 119 Stat. 3558 (2006) (codified in scattered sections of 18, 22, and 42 U.S.C.),
and 
 William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthoriza-tion Act of 2008 (2008 TVPRA), Pub. L. No. 110-457, 122 Stat. 5044 (codified in scat-tered sections of 6, 8, 18, 22, and 42 U.S.C.).
3
See 
 TVPA § 103(8) (codified at 22 U.S.C. § 7102 (2006)); U.N. Trafficking Proto-col art. 3.
4
See 
 discussion
infra 
 note 164.

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