1. Quality Design
One of the aspects that contribute to the realization of quality of design. High qualitycan only be achieved in complex products by starting at the source and correspondingmanufacturing processes. Quality is generally summarized as “meeting or exceedingcustomers expectations”. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate consumer requirements andexpectations, also called “voice of the customer”, into design. Moreover, minimal costs,optimal productivity, minimal environmental impact of product and production, andcompliance with legal requirements, should be guaranteed. According to Jongen, anadditional requirement is that food products must fulfil a role in the maintenance andimprovement of human health.For years and years, product development and process design were technology-driven.It means that technologists invented new products, which subsequently launched on themarket supported by advertising. After a test period, consumer perception of the new productwas evaluated and, if necessary, the product concept was modified or removed. This commonapproach to product development appeared to be expensive and time-consuming, and it oftenresulted in a high rate of product failures in the last decades. Up to 75-80%, of all product-ideas never reached the market stage and 30-40% of the finally launched products did notsurvive the test market.Several studies focussed on assessing causes of failure and success in productdevelopment. Van Trijp and Steenkamp summarised determinants for success and failure of new products, which were analysed in different studies. They distinguished determinantsrelated to consumers, organisational aspects, competition and marketing. The latter threefactors have been also called “the voice of the company”:
Key factors to success, related to consumers, are proper defining of productconcepts and adding higher value for the consumer to a product.
Proper structuring of the design process, appropriate embedding in theorganisation and commitment from top management, are typical organisationalkey factors for success in product development.
Competition related factors include e.g. competitive activity and turbulence,size and attractiveness of the market.
Accurate assessment of the market size and desired positioning are typicalmarketing related determinants.Composition of a product/process development team should ideally consist of thefollowing departments or experts:
to assure that selected ideas fit the corporate image andcomply with company’s objectives.
should monitor development costs and must keep itwithin budgetary limits.
in order to consider legal implications, like allowed amount of additives or labelling, to prevent the team from wasting time and money pursuing activities against the law.
Marketing and sales
departments are responsible for monitoring the market place and getting information on consumer demands. Marketing must alsoconsider the impact of new products on company’s current brand image,whereas sales should think about the impact on the shelves at the retailer.3