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Presentation 4

Presentation 4

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Published by habtamu

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Published by: habtamu on Sep 19, 2009
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12/22/2012

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Diseases of hematopoietic system
Anemia
 
Reduction in hb concentration accompanied by reduction in red cellmass
Develops w/n rate of RBC production fails to keep pace with that of RBC destruction or loss
Based on underlying mechanism anemia divided in to two
Anemia of blood loss or RBC destruction( hemorrhage, hemolyticanemia )
Anemia of impaired RBC production
Hemolytic anemia
Characterized by the ff features
Shortening of the normal RBC life span & premature destruction
Accumulation of products hb catabolism in the body
Marked increase in erythropoiesis within the bone marrow
Classified in to
1
 
↑Hereditary & acquired
Extravascular hemolysis
Occurs within the mononuclear phagocyte system(spleen, liver, bonemarrow)
Account majority of hemolytic anemia
Cause anemia, jaundice, heposplenomegally
Intravascular hemolysis
Occures within the vascular system
Cased by mechanical injury, autoimmunity, exogenous factors
Causes hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria. jaundice
In all types of hemolytic anemia the marrow become hyperplastic
Megaloblastic anemia
Impaired DNA synthesis with megaloblastic change
Caused by deficiency of vit B
12
or follic acid
RBC shows an ↑ in size
2
 
3
Iron deficiency anemia
Most common medical disorder 
Causes include
Inadequate dietary source
Impaired intestinal absorption of fe
Loss of Fe dueto hemorrhage or intravascular hemolysis
RBCes appear small (microcytic) and appear much pailure ( hypochromic )
Aplastic anemia
is a disorder characterized by
the
suppression of multipotent myeloid stem cells
with resultant anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia (pancytopenia)
In more than half of cases, aplastic anemia is
idiopathic.
 
In other cases, exposure to a known myelotoxic agent can be identified, such as
whole-body irradiation (as may occur in nuclear plant accidents) or 
use of myelotoxic drugs.
Drugs and chemicals are the most common causes of secondary aplastic

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