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Copy of Snsory

Copy of Snsory

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Published by ramadan

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Published by: ramadan on Sep 19, 2009
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12/22/2012

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Sensory
Introduction
Organization of the nervous system
ANATOMICAL organization
(1)
 
Central nervous system
 
a)
 
Brain:
1-
Cerebrum
:
cerebral hemisphere,with basal ganglia.
2-
 Diencephalon
:
thalamus andhypothalamus.
3-
 Brain stem
:
midbrain, pons &medulla.
4-
Cerebellum.
b)
Spinal cord
:
 
31 segments. 
8 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumber, 5 Sacral & 1 Coccygeal.
(2)
 
Peripheral nervous system
a)
Cranial nerves
:
(12 pairs): Sensory, motor or mixed.
b)
Spinal nerves
:
(31 pairs): All are mixed nerves.
FUNCTIONAL organization
 
the nervous system is divided into 2 systems:
1)
Somatic nervous system
It controls the activities of skeletal muscles.
2)
 Autonomic nervous system
controls
 
Visceral (involuntary) functions
.
According to the direction of nerve impulse:
1-
 
 Sensory division
:
 
Receptors
afferents
tracts
centre (CNS).
2-
 
 Motor division
:
 
Centre (CNS)
upper & lower motor neurons
organ.1
 
Sensory
Major levels of CNS function:
may be at the level of 
(a)
 
Spinal cord
:
micturition, flexor withdrawal reflex.
(b)
 
Lower brain level
:
(Thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons and medulla).(Subconscious activities)Respiratory, CVS, GIT reflexes.
(C)
 
Higher brain level
:
i.e. cortex e.g. sensory functions, motor activities, language.Cortex usually function in association with the lower brain centers.2
 
Sensory
Synaptic Transmission
Synapse is the site of junction between two neurons.With no protoplasmic continuity.
Transmission at the synapse
 
s may be
1.
 
 Electrical 
By low resistance gap-channel pathway thatallow passage of ions from one cell to another. Not Sensitive to drugs.Rare in CNS.
(
CEREBELLUM AND VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
).
2.
 
Chemical 
By release of a chemical substancefrom presynaptic terminal to act on postsynaptic cell.Sensitive to drugs.
Types of synapses
1.
 
 Axo-dendritic
:
most numerous, least excitable.
2.
 
 Axo-somatic
:
3.
 
 Axo-axonic
:
least numerous,Most excitable (low threshold).Because of the numerous Na channels in the axon hillock.3

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