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A Lipid Emulsion

A Lipid Emulsion

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Published by rahul2k
it tells about ther type of emulsion
it tells about ther type of emulsion

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Published by: rahul2k on Sep 19, 2009
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06/19/2013

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LIPID EMULSIONS
A lipid emulsion is provided comprising water, an emulsifier, and a glycerideoil component. The weight ratio of the emulsifier to glyceride oil isapproximately 0.04 to about 0.01. It has been found that intravenous lipidemulsions having a weight ratio of emulsifier to glyceride oil oapproximately 0.04 to about 0.01 are more rapidly metabolically utilized.Lipid emulsion is used as a model compound of a plasma lipoprotein particleand it is applied to the drug delivery system. For example, chylomicron is acomplex in which soluble apolipoproteins are bound to lipid emulsion. Wefound for the first time that emulsion could bind apolipoproteins (apoA-I,apoCs, and apoE) about 10-fold more than liposome. In consequence, thesystemic catabolism of the particulates and their interaction with the culturedcell change remarkably. In addition, we understand the mechanism by whichapolipoproteins recognize the topology of lipid surface, and we now arestudying its application to the delivery. Furthermore, we seek for themechanism by which cholesterol, cholesteryl ester and sphingomyelin serveas risk factors of myocardial infarction and arteriosclerosis, the diseasesknown to be related to the quality of plasma lipoproteins.
 
Schematic representation of lipid emulsions and liposomes
.
1
 
Preparation of Lipid emulsions.
A lipid mixture was prepared with 97% (w}w) triolein (95%pure; Sigma),2±5% egg phosphatidylcholine (95% pure; Prolabo, Paris, France) and 0±5%free cholesterol (99% pure; Sigma) at a ®nal concentration of 16% (w}w) inchloroform} methanol (2 :1, v}v). Aliquots of the lipid mixture solution (1 mleach) were evaporated to dryness under nitrogen in 7 ml glass tubes. The buffer (with or without ®bre) was added to a ®nal volume of 4 ml. Theaqueous mixture thus contained 4% (w}w) lipids and 0±2% ®bre, i.e. in the physiological range [5,6,23,24]. The tubes were stoppered, attachedhorizontally and shaken at 200 strokes}min for 2 h at 37 °C. These operatingconditions resulted from preliminary experiments designed to discoveconditions that would generate lipid emulsions with droplet sizes in the rangefound in human and rat stomach during fat digestion.
Emulsification measurements
Determination of the amount of emulsi®ed lipids The upper limit foemulsion droplet size was set at 100 lm, given the instability and negligibleinterfacial area of lipid droplets above this value [6]. To allow accuratemeasurements, [
carboxyl 
- "%C]triolein (98% pure; 69 mCi}mmol; CEA,Gif-sur-Yvette, France) was added in trace amounts to the lipid mixture.Radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation counting using a Packard1600TR instrument (Packard, Meriden, CT, U.S.A.) from 100 ll aliquots of two fractions collected at the end of the emulsi®cation process. One fractionwas the ¯oating oily layer composed of unemulsi®ed lipids (oily material plus lipid droplets &100 lm) which collect above the aqueous solutionsurface when tubes are left to stand for a given time (0±5±10 min at 1 g)calculated from the Stoke's sedimentation equation for droplets &100 lmunder the present conditions, as previously reported. According to Stoke'ssedimentation law, the relation between sedimentation time and particlediameter is expressed in the following equation: where
 D
is the particlediameter (m), g! is the viscosity coefficient of the solvent (N[s}m#), q is thedensity of the sample (kg}m$), q! is the density of the solvent (kg}m$),
 g 
isacceleration due to gravity (m[s−#),
is the sedimentation time (s) and
 H 
is
2
 
the distance of sedimentation (m). The second fraction was the resultinginfranatant containing emulsifed lipid droplets.
Measurement of droplet size
The distribution of the emulsion droplet sizes in the infranatant solution wasdetermined by using a particle-size analyser (Capa 700; Horiba, Kyoto,Japan) as previously described [6,8,9,10,11]. The validity of the method has previously been evaluated and calibrations made using microparticles in thesize range 0±2±100 lm (polystyrene size standard kit ; Polyscience Inc.,Warrington, PA, U.S.A.). Measurements were carried out using gradient-mode analysis at a constant centrifuge acceleration rate (960 rev.}min) toallow an accurate measurement of large dropFibres and fat emulsions
271
lets(100 lm) as well as small droplets (0±1 lm). The particle-sizer softwarecalculated the droplet-size distribution which is expressed as a fraction of thetotal droplet volume. Results are given as a frequency-distribution graphcharacterized by its median diameter (lm) and a speci®c interfacial area(m#}g). The droplet surface area (m#) was calculated from the amount (g) of emulsi®ed lipids in the infranatant solution.
Effects of fibres on lipid emulsification
To determine the effects of soluble ®bres on the extent of fat emulsi®cation, we measuredthe amount of emulsi®ed lipidand the size of the emulsi®edlipid droplets produced andcalculated the surface areagenerated. Lipid emulsi®cationoccurred to a moderate extent(24±6%) under the conditionsselected in the absence of ®bre(control). Adding ®bres did notmarkedly change this. Foinstance, 0±3% solutions of the®bres caused the followingextents of emulsi®cation : gum arabic, 23±8%; HVG, 29±7%; MVG,25±6%; LVG, 24±2%; NND pectin, 27±8%; BNF pectin, 26±1%. The data
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