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To Evaluate the Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules

To Evaluate the Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules

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Published by rahul2k
an experiment To Evaluate the Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules
an experiment To Evaluate the Empty Hard Gelatin Capsules

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Published by: rahul2k on Sep 19, 2009
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- To evaluate the empty hard gelatin capsules.
British Pharmacoepia 2007, United States Pharmacoepia 2007,L.Lachman, H.A. Lieberman, J.L. Kanig (1986).
The Theory and Practiceof Industrial Pharmacy (3rd Ed.)
. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
Pharmaceutical Aid
Keep 100 capsule shells in a well-closed bottle for 24 hrs at a temperature b/w 30-40C. The shell does not develop any forcing odour.
Store in a well-closed container in a cool place.
Size of capsules
Only permitted colors, if any
Storage conditions
Capsules are solid dosage forms in which the drug is enclosed within either a hard or softsoluble container or “shell.”Capsules are solid preparations with hard or soft shells of various shapes and capacities,usually containing a single dose of active substance(s). They are intended for oraladministration. The shells are usually formed from gelatin; however, they also may be madefrom starch or other suitable substances. Hard-shell capsule sizes range from No. 5, thesmallest, to No. 000, which is the largest, except for veterinary sizes.The shell of hard gelatin capsules basically consists of gelatin, plasticizers and water. Modernday shells may, in addition, consist of preservatives, colours, opacifying agents, flavours,sugars, acids, enteric materials etc. The gelatin is marketed in a large number of varieties anda specific quality and gelatin having specified gel strength, viscosity, iron content etc. should be selected for capsules.The capsules shells should be stored under controlled conditions of temperature andhumidity. The normal moisture content of shell is 10 to 15%. Under conditions of lowhumidity they may soften and grow tacky.The contents of capsules may be solid, liquid or of a paste-like consistency. They consist of one or more active substances with or without excipients such as solvents, diluents,lubricants and disintegrating agents. The contents do not cause deterioration of the shell. Theshell, however, is attacked by the digestive fluids and the contents are released.Several categories of capsules may be distinguished:Hard capsules; soft capsules; gastro-resistant capsules; modified-release capsules; cachets.
Identification Test for capsules: -
Boil one capsule shell with 25ml H
O, allow cooling & centrifuging. To 5ml of supernatantliquid add 1ml of tannic acid solution; a precipitate is produced in each case.
Microbial Limits: -
This test is done to check any presence of microbes, specially Bacteria in the capsule shell.
:- Crush the Capsule and
see the powder of shell under the microscope. Totalmicrobial count 1000g of capsule shells , 1.0g of capsules is free from E.Coli & Salmonella.
Loss on Drying: -
This test is done to check the moisture loosing limit of capsule sheel when kept in extremeconditions.
Between 12.5%& 16.0% determined on 1g of capsule shells by drying in anoven for 4 hrs or to constant weight.
Disintegration Test for Capsules: -
This test is provided to determine whether tablets or capsules disintegrate within theprescribed time when placed in a liquid medium under the experimental conditionspresented below.
For the purposes of this test, disintegration does not imply complete dissolution of the unit or even of its active constituent. Complete disintegration is defined as that state in which anyresidue of the unit, except fragments of insoluble coating or capsule shell, remaining on thescreen of the test apparatus or adhering to the lower surface of the discs, if used, is a softmass having no palpably firm core.
The apparatus consists of a basket-rack assembly, a 1 litre, low-form beaker,149 ± 11 mm in height and having an inside diameter of 106 ± 9 mm for the immersion fluid,a thermostatic arrangement for heating the fluid between 35 °C and 39 °C, and a device for raising and lowering the basket in the immersion fluid at a constant frequency rate between29 and 32 cycles per minute, through a distance of 55 ± 2 mm. The time required for theupward stroke is equal to the time required for the downward stroke, and the change instroke direction is a smooth transition, rather than an abrupt reversal of motion. The basket-rack assembly moves vertically along its axis. There is no appreciable horizontal motion or movement of the axis from the vertical. The assembly used is
 Basket-rack assembly
The basket-rack assembly consists of 6 open-ended transparent tubes, each 77.5 ± 2.5 mm longand having an inside diameter of 21.85 ± 1.15 mm and a wall 1.9 ± 0.9 mm thick; the tubesare held in a vertical position by 2 plates, each 90 ± 2 mm in diameter and 6.75 ± 1.75 mm inthickness, with 6 holes, each 24 ± 2 mm in diameter, equidistant from the centre of the plateand equally spaced from one another.
Place 1 dosage unit in each of the 6 tubes of the basket and, if prescribed, add a disc. Operatethe apparatus using the specified medium, maintained at 37 ± 2 °C, as the immersion fluid.At the end of the specified time, lift the basket from the fluid and observe the dosage units:2
all of the dosage units have disintegrated completely. If 1 or 2 dosage units fail todisintegrate, repeat the test on 12 additional dosage units. The requirements of the test aremet if not less than 16 of the 18 dosage units tested have disintegrated.
Average Weight:
The following tests provide limits for the permissible variations in the weights of individual capsules, expressed in terms of the allowable deviation from the averageweight of a sample.Procedure:-
Weigh 20 intact capsules individually, and determine the average weight. The requirementsare met if each of the individual weights is within the limits of 90% and 110% of the averageweight. The average weight is within +/- 10% of target weight.If not all of the capsules fall within the aforementioned limits, weigh the 20 capsulesindividually. Weigh the emptied shells individually, and calculate for each capsule the netweight of its contents by subtracting the weight of the shell from the respective gross weight.Determine the average net content from the sum of the individual net weights. Thendetermine the difference between each individual net content and the average net content: therequirements are met if (a) not more than 2 of the differences are greater than 10% of theaverage net content and (b) in no case is the difference greater than 25%.If more than 2 but not more than 6 capsules deviate from the average between 10% and 25%,determine the net contents of an additional 40 capsules, and determine the average content of the entire 60 capsules. Determine the 60 deviations from the new average: the requirementsare met if (a) in not more than 6 of the 60 capsules does the difference exceed 10% of theaverage net content and (b) in no case does the difference exceed 25%.
Dimensions of Hard Capsules:
Capsules are solid dosage forms in which the drug is enclosed within either a hard or softsoluble container or “shell.” The shells are usually formed from gelatin; however, they alsomay be made from starch or other suitable substances. Hard-shell capsule sizes range from No. 5, the smallest, to No. 000, which is the largest, except for veterinary sizes. However,size No. 00 generally is the largest size acceptable to patients. Size 0 hard gelatin capsuleshaving an elongated body (known as size OE) also are available, which provide greater fillcapacity without an increase in diameter. Hard gelatin capsules consist of two, telescopingcap and body pieces.

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