1. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES
To overcome the limitations of manual switching; automatic exchanges, havingElectro-mechanical components, were developed. Strowger exchange, the first automaticexchange having direct control feature, appeared in 1892 in La Porte (Indiana). Though itimproved upon the performance of a manual exchange it still had a number of disadvantages, viz., a large number of mechanical parts, limited availability, inflexibility, bulky in size etc. As a result of further research and development, Crossbar exchanges,having an indirect control system, appeared in 1926 in Sundsvall, Sweden. The Crossbar exchange improved upon many short- comings of the Strowger system. However, muchmore improvement was expected and the revolutionary change in field of electronics provided it. A large number of moving parts in Register, marker, Translator, etc., werereplaced en-block by a single computer. This made the exchange smaller in size, volumeand weight, faster and reliable, highly flexible, noise-free, easily manageable with no preventive maintenance etc.1.1 The first electronic exchange employing Space-Division switching (Analogswitching) was commissioned in 1965 at Succasunna, New Jersey. This exchange used one physical path for one call and, hence, full availability could still not be achieved. Further research resulted in development of Time-Division switching (Digital Switching) whichenabled sharing a single path by several calls, thus providing full availability. The firstdigital exchange was commissioned in 1970 in Brittany, France.This handout reviews the evolution of the electronic exchanges, lists thechronological developments in this field and briefly describes the facilities provided tosubscribers, administration and maintenance personnel.
Table 1 Chronological Development of Electronic Exchanges.ANALOG
1965 No.1 ESS Local Bell Labs, USA1972 D 10 Local and Transit NEC. Japan.1973 Metaconta Local LMT. France1974 No. 1 ESS Centrex Local and Transit Bell Labs. USA1975 Proteo Local & Transit Proteo, Italy1976 AXE Local PTT & LM Ericsson, Sweden1976 No.4 ESS Transit Bell Labs, USA1978 AXE Local LM Eiricsson, Sweden.