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Published by neeraj kumar singh

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Published by: neeraj kumar singh on Sep 20, 2009
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To overcome the limitations of manual switching; automatic exchanges, havingElectro-mechanical components, were developed. Strowger exchange, the first automaticexchange having direct control feature, appeared in 1892 in La Porte (Indiana). Though itimproved upon the performance of a manual exchange it still had a number of disadvantages, viz., a large number of mechanical parts, limited availability, inflexibility, bulky in size etc. As a result of further research and development, Crossbar exchanges,having an indirect control system, appeared in 1926 in Sundsvall, Sweden. The Crossbar exchange improved upon many short- comings of the Strowger system. However, muchmore improvement was expected and the revolutionary change in field of electronics provided it. A large number of moving parts in Register, marker, Translator, etc., werereplaced en-block by a single computer. This made the exchange smaller in size, volumeand weight, faster and reliable, highly flexible, noise-free, easily manageable with no preventive maintenance etc.1.1 The first electronic exchange employing Space-Division switching (Analogswitching) was commissioned in 1965 at Succasunna, New Jersey. This exchange used one physical path for one call and, hence, full availability could still not be achieved. Further research resulted in development of Time-Division switching (Digital Switching) whichenabled sharing a single path by several calls, thus providing full availability. The firstdigital exchange was commissioned in 1970 in Brittany, France.This handout reviews the evolution of the electronic exchanges, lists thechronological developments in this field and briefly describes the facilities provided tosubscribers, administration and maintenance personnel.
Table 1 Chronological Development of Electronic Exchanges.ANALOG
1965 No.1 ESS Local Bell Labs, USA1972 D 10 Local and Transit NEC. Japan.1973 Metaconta Local LMT. France1974 No. 1 ESS Centrex Local and Transit Bell Labs. USA1975 Proteo Local & Transit Proteo, Italy1976 AXE Local PTT & LM Ericsson, Sweden1976 No.4 ESS Transit Bell Labs, USA1978 AXE Local LM Eiricsson, Sweden.
Table 2: Development of Electronic ExchangesCapacity (in thousands) TrafficMODELAnalogLines Trunks Erlangs Call Attempts persecond
 No. 1 ESS 10-65 - 6,000 30 No. 1 ESS 20-128 32 10,000 65 NO. 4 A XB ETS - 22.4 6,200 35 No. 4 ESS - 107 47,500 150D 10 98 14.3 4,400
30XE 1 - 13 2,500 3.6EWSD 30 - 2,000 11-16EWSP - 13 5,000 -TXE-4 40 - 5,000 50Proteo 30 15 - -AXE 64 - 6,000 35PRX-205 10 - 1,000 10-15
Digital Exchange
- - - -E-10B 30 4 2,400 25Mentaconta 10-60 - 10,000 28-60MT 20 - 64 20,000 83-110E 12 - 65 15,000 86System X 100 60 25,000 800000AXE -10 64 - 26,000 800000FETEX-150L 290 60 24,000 1800000OCB-283 200 60 25,000 800000EWSD 250 60 25,200 1000000 No.5ESS - - - - NEAX-61E 100 60 27,000 1000000
Electromechanical Exchanges - Electronic Exchanges
Category, Analysis, Routing, translation, etc;,done by relays.Any changes in facilities require addition of hardware and/or large amount of wiringchange. Flexibility limited.Testing is done manually externally and is timeTranslation, speech path Sub’s Facilities, etc.,managed by MAP and other DATA.Changes can be carried out by simplecommands. A few changes can be made bySubs himself. Hence, highly flexible.Testing carried out periodically automatically
 3consuming. No logic analysis carried out.Partial full-availability, hence blocking.limited facilities to the subscribers.Slow in speed. Dialing speed is max. 11 Ipsand switching speed is in l milliseconds.Switch room occupies large volume.Lot of switching noise.Long installation and testing time.Large maintenance effort and preventivemaintenance necessary.and analysis printed out.Full availability, hence no blocking. A largenumber of different types of services possiblevery easily.Very fast. Dialing speed up to 11 digits /sec possible. Switching is achieved in a fewmicroseconds.Much lesser volume required floor space of switch room reduced to about one-sixth.Almost noiseless.Short installation and testing period.Remedial maintenance is very easy due to plug-in type circuit boards. Preventivemaintenance not required.
1.3 Influence of Electronics in Exchange Design.
When electronic devices were introduced in the switching systems, a newconcept of switching evolved as a consequence of their extremely high operating speedcompared to their former counter-parts, i.e., the Electro-mechanical systems, Relays, thelogic elements in the electromechanical systems, have operate and release times which areroughly equal to the duration of telephone signals to maintain required accuracy. However,to achieve the requisite simultaneous call processing capacity, it became essential for suchsystem to have number of such electrical control units (Called registers in a Cross-bar Exchange), in parallel, each handling one call at a time. In other words, it was necessary tohave an individual control system to process each call.Electronic logic components on the other hand, can operate a thousand or tenthousand times during a telephone signal. This led to a concept of using a single electroniccontrol device to simultaneously process a number of calls on time-sharing basis. Thoughsuch centralisation of control is definitely more economical it has the disadvantage of making the switching system more vulnerable to total system failure. This can, however beovercome by having a standby control device.Another major consequence of using electronics in control subsystems of atelephone exchange was to make it technically and economically feasible to realize powerful processing units employing complex sequence of instructions. Part of the control equipmentcapacity could then be employed for functions other than call processing, viz., exchangeoperation and maintenance. It resulted in greatly improved system reliability withoutexcessively increasing system cost. This development led to a form of centralized control inwhich the same processor handled all the functions, i.e., call processing, operation andmaintenance functions of the entire exchange.

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