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The Art and Practice of Sausage Making

The Art and Practice of Sausage Making

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Categories:Types, Recipes/Menus
Published by: lokikg on Sep 20, 2009
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10/15/2012

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1
 
 a u s a g e : C  h o p p e d  o r g r o u n d  m e a t  t  h a t  h a s  b e e n  b  l e n d e d w i t  h  s p i c e s  a n d o t  h e r  s e a s o n i n g s a n d  u s u a  l  l y s t u f f e d  i n  n a t u r o r  m a n u f a c t u r e c a s i n g s .
Martin Marchello, Ph.D., Professor, Animal and Range SciencesJulie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialis
t
 
Making
      T      h     e
Art
andof
 Sausage
Practice
FN-176
(Revised)North Dakota State University, Fargo, North DakotaDecember 1998
Reviewed and reprinted June 2002
 
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History
The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably beganwhen mankind learned that salt is an effective preservative. Sausagemaking evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making,quality standards are maintained while using most parts of theanimal carcass.Good sausage makers are as discriminating about what goes intosausage as winemakers are about selecting grapes. Early sausagemakers found that a wide range of raw ingredients could be used.The primary ingredients of sausage were the parts of the animalcarcasses that could not be used in other ways. Today many primalparts are used in the production of sausage; however, the lesstender cuts, organ meats and even blood can be made deliciouswhen ground, spiced and cased.The procedure of stuffing meat into casings remains basically thesame today, but sausage recipes have been greatly refined andsausage making has become a highly respected culinary art. Any product can be made from a wide range of raw materials exposedto rather extreme conditions of temperature and time schedules andbe consumer acceptable.Sausage grew in popularity and brought fame and fortune to many sausage makers and to various cities. Today more than 250 varietiesare sold, and many of these can be traced back to the town andcountry of origin.The contemporary role of sausage fits conveniently into our modernlifestyles as an elegant appetizer for entertaining as well as the maincourse in “quick-and-easy” meals. Furthermore, sausages are arelatively safe product to consume because of the added effects of salt, pH, cure, drying and cooking to preserve the product andeliminate harmful bacteria.Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varietiesand flavors. Sausages are an excellent source of high quality pro- tein, containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amountsnecessary for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue.Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals.
History
 Sa u sa g e: C h o p p e d  o r g r o u n d  m ea t t ha t  ha s  b e e n b l e n d e d  w i t h s p ic e s a n d o t h e r s ea s o n i n g sa n d  u s ua l l y s t u f f e d  i n na t u ra l  o r ma n u fac t u r e dca s i n g s.
 
3
Types of Sausage
Sausages are made from beef, veal, pork, lamb,poultry and wild game, or from any combination of these meats. Sausage making has become a uniqueblend of old procedures and new scientific, highly- mechanized processes. Traditionally, sausage wasformed into a symmetrical shape, but it now can befound in a variety of shapes and sizes to meet consumers’ needs. Many sausage products arevacuum packed, freshness dated and 100% edible.Sausages can be classified in a variety of ways, but probably the most useful is by how they are pro- cessed (Table 1). Processing methods give sausageseasily recognizable characteristics.
Table 1 Sausage Classifications
ClassificationExamples Storage and Handling
Fresh sausage
Fresh pork sausage,Keep refrigerated. Cook bratwurst, bockwursthoroughly before eating. Consume within 3days or freeze.
Uncooked smoked
Smoked, country style,Keep refrigerated. Cook thoroughly before
sausage
mettwurst, keilbasaeating. Consume within 7 days or freeze.pork sausage
Cooked smoked
Frankfurter, bologna,Keep refrigerated. Consume within
sausage
cotto salami7 days after opening vacuum package.
Dry sausage
Genoa salami, pepperoni,Do not require refrigeration.
Semi-dry sausage
Lebanon bologna, cervelot,For best quality, keep refrigerated.summer sausage, thuringer 
Cooked meat
Loaves, head cheese,Keep refrigerated. Consume within 3 days afte
specialties
scrappleopening vacuum package.
Equipment
It only requires a grinder, a good meat thermometer and some general household items to make excellent sausage. If you do not have a grinder, you canpurchase ground meat from the store. Many prod- ucts do not need to be smoked, but liquid smokecan be added to give the smoky flavor desired, or  you may add a small portion of a cooked, smokedproduct like bacon to produce the smoky flavor.You can purchase a household smoker or make one. An old refrigerator converted to a smokehouseworks quite well if you need to smoke the product.Smokehouses can be as simple as a tarp covering or as sophisticated as a commercial unit. Plans for smokehouses are available from the Agricultural andBiosystems Engineering, North Dakota State Univer- sity, Box 5626, Fargo, ND 58105 (Phone 231-7261).

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