Glossary of Hydropower Terms
The glossary of terms defines the components that make up hydro turbines and hydropower plants.
Alternating current (AC)
Electric current that reverses direction many times per second.
Direct current (DC)
Electric current which flows in one direction.
Forbay, Trashrock, Penstock ,
Forbay is the upstream pool before the intake. Trashrock is the net screen to prevent largeobjects flowing into the turbine. Penstock is a steel closed conduit or pipe for conducting water to the powerhouse.
HVertical change in elevation, expressed in meters, between the upstream water level and thetailrace water level. Rated head is Hr in meters.
QVolume of water, expressed as cubic meters per second, passing a point in a given amount of time. Rated flow is Qr in m3/s.
ηA percentage obtained by dividing the actual power or energy by the theoretical power or energy. It represents how well the hydropower plant converts the energy of the water intoelectrical energy.
Output of Hydro Turbine Nt
in kW Nt=9.81ηHr Q (KW)
A spiral-shaped steel intake guiding the flow into the wicket gates located just prior to theturbine.
Adjustable elements that control the flow of water to the turbine passage.