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Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto

Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto

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Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto
Herbert Penzl
 Journal of the American Oriental Society
, Vol. 81, No. 1. (Jan. - Mar., 1961), pp. 43-52.
 Journal of the American Oriental Society
is currently published by American Oriental Society.Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content inthe JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/journals/aos.html.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers,and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community takeadvantage of advances in technology. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.http://www.jstor.orgSun Feb 10 08:06:18 2008
 
WESTERN LOANWORDS IN MODERN PASHTOONE
OF
THE
MOST
INTERESTING
lexical problemsin the modern languages of Asia is the influence ofwestern culture and modern technology on thevocabulary. Pashto is the language spoken mostlyin the east, south, and southwest of Afghanistan,the northwest of West Pakistan and in the borderarea between the two countries; it is beside Persianthe official language of Afghanistan, but only aregional language in Pakistan, which favors Urdu.A major part of the learned and scientific vocabu-lary of Pashto has been derived from the Persian-Arabic tradition, and the number and status ofthese loans troubled lexicographers in the past(e.g., H.
W.
Bellow; cf. his Dictionary of thePukkhto Language, preface, p. vii). This studywill deal with the loanwords from English, French,and German found in the modern literary lan-guage and in the educated speech of Afghanistan.
It
is based in the main on the investigation of theusage of the Kabul dailies Hdwcid and, particu-larly, Islcih from June, 1958, to May, 1959, as wellas on work with educated speakers of Pasht0.l Wewill deal with the following aspects of the loan-word problem
:
the fields of meaning representedin the corpus
(5
1)
;
he phonemics of the loan-words and their sources
(5
2)
;
heir morphologicalfeatures
(5
3)
;
the morphemic variation amongloanwords
(5
4).
1:
THE
CORPUS
OF
WESTERN O~~XWORDSThe words from Western sources that we find inthe Pashto lexicon reveal the areas in which West-ern ways, cultures, and technology have influencedthe country: the familiar "IVorter und Sachen"
l
Mohammad Rahim Elham and others in Kabul in1959; Abdul Ghafoor (from Kohdaman near Kabul) andNoor Ahmad Shaker (from Kandahar) in Snn Arbor,1960.The work in Kabul 1vas assisted by a grant fromthe Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies ofthe University of Michigan; the work in Ann Arbor islinked to the Research Project in Xear and MiddleEastern Languages, which includes a Pashto-Englishdictionary project. The varying usage of the nativespeakers is, if pertinent, marked by E (Elham), Gh(Ghafoor)
,
Sh (Shaker), respectively. The contexts ofthe
Hlwcid
and
Islcih
occurrences are never, their datesonly rarely, given.
43correlation remains valid.The names of manyforeign countries
(5
1.
I), of Western measures,weights, and months
(5
1.2) are loanwords.Wefind among them terms for European clothing,food, objects
(9
1.3)
;
political, commercial, andadministrative terms
(5
1.4)
;
cientific and tech-nological vocabulary
(§
1.5), particularly in thefield of motor transport
(5
1.6)
;
erms in medi-cine and education
(§
l.7), culture and sport
(5
1.8).We cannot quote the entire loanwordcorpus, but shall try to include the most repre-sentative examples, which are usually listed alpha-betically in each group.
1.1.
Geographical Terms
&lost of the names of foreign countries andnationalities are derived from English, some ofthem from Fren~h.~ xamples are: arnrikd,arnrika 'America,' dstariyci, dtrG 'Austria'(French Autriche), Eakdsalwcikiya (Sh), Eikd-salwdkiy& (E)
'
Czechoslovakia,' danrndrk 'Den-mark,' fardns, farcinsa 'France'
(F
France)'h&lEnd (Sh), hdlind, hdlcind, hdlind (E), hdlaynd(Gh)
'
Holland,' inglisi, angrEzf
'
English
'
(F
angZais), jarrnani (Sh), jarrnan, alrndn (E)
'
Germany' (F Allemagne), kdncidd
'
Canada,'
'n&rwb
'Norway,' naway zildnd, niwzilEnd 'NewZealand,' pdlEnd (Sh) 'Poland,' sawidan (Sh),siwidan (E), sawbdan (Gh) 'Sweden' (GermanSchweden), silun
'
Ceylon,' switzarlEnd, sawts,swazarlaynd (Gh) 'Switzerland' (F Suisse), tciy-lind (E) 'Thailand,' yugdsalciwiya (Sh), yugd-saldaiyd (E) 'Yugoslavia.'
The following transcription symbols are used in thisarticle for the Pashto words: vowels:
a
ci
E
i
i
6
u
.ii
(see
s
2. 1, 2.2 below) resonants:
w y l r n m
n
(s
2.3~) stops and spirants:
b
p d
t
d
6
g
k
q
f
h
x
(voicelessvelar spirant)
g
(voiced velar spirant)sibilants:
s
z
B
8
rgtroflexed (in Kandahar)
:
8
Konfinal stress is indicated:
e.
g., 'Epril
This transcription differs from the one used in my
Gram-mar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect ofKandahar, Afghanistan
(Washington,
D.
C.: ACLS,1955), quoted below as
Grammar of Pashto.
Cf.
L.
Bogdanow,
"
Stray Notes on Kabuli Persian,"
Journal Proc. As. Soc. Bengal,
XXVI
(1930),
p.
81.
 
44
PENZL:
Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto
1.2. Measures, Months
Among names of Western measures derived fromWestern languages, we find
:
in2 'inch,' gdlan 'gal-lon,' kildgardm, kildgirdrn, 7cd16 'kg' (F kilo-gramrne, G Eilograrnm), mitar, rnitr 'meter,'rnilydn
'
million
'
(F million, G Xillion), rnilydrd,milydr, bilyun 'billion
'
(F milliard, G Nilliarde),nambar, lumbar 'number,' sdnti 'centimeter' (Fcentirnetre), sdntigrdt, sdntigrdd (E)
'
centigrade
'
(F centigrade), $an 'ton.'The names of the Western solar months aremostly derived from English: jinwari (Sh), jan-wari 'January,' firwari, fibrwari, coll. farwari
'
February,' mdrE, mars (E)
'
March
'
(F mars),aprdl, ('Epril) 'April
'
(G April), may
'
Xay
'
(GMai), j4n, j6n (Sh) 'June,' jdldy, jdlbi, jdldyi(Sh) 'July,' ngist, agast 'August,' sdtambar, sitirn-bar, sitarnbar, siptirnbar
'
September' (Fseptembre,G September), aktubar, dktdbar
'
October,' nawim-bar, nawimbar, nuwarnbar 'November' (F novem-bre), dasirnbar, disimbar, disarnbar, disdrnbar
'
December
'
(F dkcernbre)
.
1.3. 
Clothing, Objects, Food
Western articles of clothing are represented byWestern terms
:
but,
bdt
'boot,' dabal
'
strong,thick
'
(Engl. double),' fEian 'toilet, dressing up
'
(Engl. fashion), kdlar
'
collar,' kdt
'
coat, overcoat,'ldkit
'
locket,' middl (E)
,
maddl (Gh)
,
maddl(Sh) 'medal'
(F
me'daille), niktdyi, niktbyf, tdi(in Peshawar) 'necktie,' patlun, patlun (Sh)'pants, trousers' (F pantalon), waskat, wfiskat'waistcoat, vest.'Some terms for objects and household items thathave come in from the West are loanwords: baks,'bakas, also baksa, 'bakas in Peshawar 'box,'bandal
'
bundle,' bdtal 'bottle
'
(F bouteille),gdlas, gilds 'glass,' jag
'
(water) -jug,' kdrk, k&k'cork,' ndt, 166 'note, bill,' pdkat 'packet,' pdrsal'parcel,' pinsal, pinsil, pinsin 'pencil,' puskat
'
postcard,' sblun
'
reception-room, parlor
'
(Fsalon), s'tdp, is'tdp
'
(cooking)-stove,' tim
'
tin-can.'
d
few loanwords refer to food and connecteditems: dmlit 'omelette,' jali 'jelly,' kafi, kdpi
'
coffee,' kPk
'
calie,' markit
'
market, (modern)chainstore,' pddar, pddar
'
powder
'
(F poudre,
G
Puder), piidin, pcdin 'pudding,'' patdtd
'
pota-toes,' sigrit, sigrEt
'
cigarette,' strdbari
'
strawberry.'
Cf.
James Darmesteter,
Chants populaires des
Af-
ghans
(Paris,
1888-1890),
pp.
275
f.
:
"
Words Borrowedfrom
English."
1.4. 
Administrative and Political Terms
Many administrative, commercial, and politicalterms are loanwords from Western languages
:
asdmbla 'meeting, assembly' (F assemblhe),a$Ga 'attach6
'
(F attachh), nidns
'
(news)agency
'
(F agence), bank 'bank,' bldk 'block,'budija, bddija 'budget
'
(F budget), Eans
'
chance,'diktaturi 'dictatorship
;
dictatorial,' dimdlcrdsi,dimdkarasi (Gh) 'democracy,' fagisti 'fascism,'g6p 'group,' impriy&lis$i imperialistic,' kdbina
'
cabinet
'
(F cabinet), karnpani
'
company,' kan-trdl, kantrdl
'
control,' kdmita, kurnita
'
com-mittee' (F comite'), lcurnisydn, karnisyun 'com-mission, committee
'
(F
comission, G h'ornrnission),kdndidawam, kdndidawam
'I
run (somebody) ascandidate,' kamdnizam 'communism,' kamdnis$(Sh) 'communist,' list 'list' (F liste, G Liste),ndrmdl, nurmdl, nlirmal 'normal' (F normal, Gnormal), pdlisi
'
policy,' pdrelrndn, pdrlarnbn (Gh)
'
parliament
'
(F parlement
)
,
pldn
'
plan
'
(F plan,G Plan), prdia, pardia
'
project' (F projet), pulis,pdlis, coll. palus
'
police
'
(F police), prdgrdrn,pardgaram
'
program
'
(F programme, G Pro-gramm)
,
prdtist
'
protest,' prdtdkdl
'
protocol
'
(Fprotocole, G Protokoll), rapbt, rdpdt, rdpbrt, rdpdr(Gh)
'
report
'
(F rapport), raiirn, raiim
'
regime
'
(F
rhgime), rifarandum 'referendum,' rdl 'role'(F ro^le), sisturn, sistam
'
system,' sdsydlizm
'
socialism
'
(F socialisme), sdsydlist, sdsydl6t
'
socialist
'
(F socialiste), yunit
'
unit,' z'CrcLlist
'
journalist
'
(F journaliste)
.
Some military terms are loanwords
:
afsar,awsar
'
officer,' gdrd, gdrd
'
guard
'
(F garde)
,
jinrcil
'
general
'
(newly established rank), mar;,mar5 'march' (F marche,
G
,Varsch), paltan,paltan (Engl. battalion), qumdnddn, kdmanddn'commander' (F commandant,
G
h'omrnandant),ibnddrm
'
gendarme
'
(F gendarme).
1.5. 
Scientific and Technical Vocabulary
Some scientific terms are Western loanwords:atum, btum, atam 'atom'
(F
atome,
G
Atom),fdrmul, fdrmul 'formula
'
(F formule), iskilit,skilet 'skeleton'
(G
Xkelett,
P
squelette), kEmyd,(kimistrt) 'chemistry'
(G
Chemie), pizik, (jiziks)'physics'
(G
Physik,
F
physique), sarwd 'survey,''sdyins, siydns 'science
'
(F science).
9
large number of technological terms have beenborrowed: bagay 'tonga,' bum, bam 'bomb,' bdy-sikal, bdysikdl
'
bicycle,' bitcn
'
concrete
'
(F
be'ton,
G
Beton), bdlt 'bolt,' fdbrika, pdbrika 'factory'

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