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THER103-Fluid Flow Energy Losses

# THER103-Fluid Flow Energy Losses

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01/15/2014

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ENERGY LOSSES in FLUID FLOW
In practice there is no such thing as frictionless flow and we must normally take frictional losses into account.Frictional losses occur because of fluid viscosity and the creation of turbulence because of flow disturbances.entrances,exits,straight sections, bends,contractions, expansions,valves,fittings etc.
If there are energy losses between (1) and (2) Bernoulli's equation is written:
Loss Energy pgzv pgzv

222221112121
+ρ++=ρ++
L
H g p zgvg p zgv Loss Head g p zgvg p zgv
+ρ++=ρ+++ρ++=ρ++
2222112122221121
22 22
The usual form of the equation expressing these losses is to write it in terms of head – and the energy loss is expressed as a
.

2
Head loss because of fluid friction in straight length of pipe
flowshear forces due to viscosity resisting the flow
L d
1
p
2
p
The fluid contained in the pipe is not accelerating therefore the forces acting on it must sum to zero. pressure difference between the ends arising as a result of resistance to flow
dLareasurfacestressshear  forceshear Total
ws
π×τ=×=
i.e. .
22121
4)( i.e. .sec)( Pr
p pareationalcross p p forceessure
p
π×=×=
ww
L p pdL p p
τ=πτ= π×
4)( 4)(
21221
wall pipetheat stressshear
w

=τ
Equating forces:The fluid shear stress acting at the wall is related to the
dynamic pressure
by what is known as the
friction factor
.
24)(
221
v L f  p p
ρ=
  
ρ=τ
2
2
v f
w
gv L f g p plosshead The
24)(
221
=ρ=
The friction factor itself is a function of Reynolds Number (containing viscosity) and the relative roughness of the pipe inner surface. For laminar flow:
Re16
=
f
For turbulent flow we obtain friction factor from a
Moody Diagram:
gv L f h
L
24
2
=

3
Caution:
In some versions of the Moody Diagram (US practice) the ‘4’ in the expression is incorporated into the friction factor. This is usually evident from the diagram itself.In the diagram above:
g d  L f  h LV  hDg f
L
22
22
==

For laminar flow:
Re64
=
f
4
American British
f  f
=
the ‘4’ is missingThis does not normally cause a problem –it’s simply a case of using the correct head loss expression with the matching friction factor.

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