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Science Project

Science Project

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Published by pastoriusnerd
I science project ive been working on for a couple years
I science project ive been working on for a couple years

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Published by: pastoriusnerd on Sep 21, 2009
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09/22/2010

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How to manipulate Overtones
 A scientific guide to the sound phenomenon
The Henderson International SchoolRobert DeMangus, 6th Grade Science Report • Schau • March 2, 2006
 
Overtones
In order to explain my project, I must start at the fundamental cause of sound, indefinably, vibration. Vibration is defined as mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point (starting  point). These oscillations can be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such asthe motion of a bouncing ball on a bumpy road. There are two main types of vibration. There arefree vibration and forced vibration. Free vibration occurs when something is set off by an initialinput and is allowed to vibrate freely. An example of this is hitting a bell and letting it ring or holding a chain and letting it swing. Forced vibration occurs when an alternating force or motionis applied to something. An example of this is a shaking washing machine due to imbalance or the vibration of a building during an earthquake.Often, vibration is undesirable. It wastes energy and creates unwanted sounds such as in mo-tors and engines. These vibrations can cause imbalances in moving parts. Certain designs areimportant to take into consideration and are sometimes necessary, in the making of vehicles, in-struments, and various things because of this constant presence of sound. However, in recent  years scientists have been working with sound as a form of renewable energy. Sound has often been forgotten and has been run over by hydro, wind, electric forms of energy. Now scientist are working on perfecting types of power such as thermoacoustics. In many cases vibration is very desirable. For example the motion of a tuning fork, the reedon a woodwind instrument, or the cone on a loudspeakerand is necessary for the correct functioning of various de- vices. Where would we be without sound. Give me a timeduring your day when you do not hear sound. Vibrations oscillate at what we call a frequency. But inorder to understand them we must first understand thefundamentals of vibration analysis. We will start with a simple Mass-Spring-Damper model. Even a highly intricatestructure such as an automobile can be modeled as a summation of a simple Mass-Spring-Damper model. A Mass-Spring-Damper model is a model of a simple harmonicoscillator as shown.
 
To start the explanation of the Mass-Spring-Damper model we will assume the damping is not a variable and that there is no external force applied to the mass.This is an example of free vibration. The simple harmonicoscillator above is an undamped spring-mass system (only inoscillation).The force applied to the mass by the spring is proportional to the amount the spring isstretched = X. The proportionality constant =K, is the stiffness of thespring and has units of force and distance. The mass obviously = M.“Observed from an inertial reference frame, the net force on a particle of constant mass is proportional to the time rate of change of its linear momentum” -Isaac Newton’s second law omotion as stated by wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton’s_laws_of_motion.This statement is often simplified asIf we assume that when we start a simple harmonic oscillator by stretching the spring by thedistance of A and letting go, the solution to that describes the motion of massThis equation says that it will oscillate with simple harmonic motion that has an amplitude of A and a frequency of f 
n
. The number f 
n
is one of the most important quantities in vibration analysisand is undamped natural frequency. For the simple spring-mass-damper system f 
n
is defined as 

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