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Van de gi thep

Van de gi thep

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Published by khoiquyenvn

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Published by: khoiquyenvn on Sep 21, 2009
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11/15/2013

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H\u00e9i ngh\u00de khoa h\u00e4c to\u00b5n qu\u00e8c l\u00c7n th\u00f8 ba v\u00d2
S\u00f9 c\u00e8 v\u00b5 h\u00ad h\u00e1ng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng
V\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 g\u00d8 th\u00d0p v\u00b5 c\u00b8c bi\u00d6n ph\u00b8p l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch
g\u00d8 th\u00d0p trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng

TS. Ph\u00b9m V\u00a8n Khoan, KS. Nguy\u00d4n Quang To\u00b6n, CN. V\u00f2 Th\u00d5 Ph\u00ad\u00acng, CN. Tr\u00c7n Nam
Ph\u00dfng Nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u \u00a1n m\u00dfn v\u00b5 B\u00b6o v\u00d6 c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh
Vi\u00d6n KHCN X\u00a9y d\u00f9ng

T\u00e3m t\u00bet: G\u00d8 l\u00b5 c\u00b8c s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m c\u00f1a qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh \u00a8n m\u00dfn h\u00d7nh th\u00b5nh do ph\u00b6n \u00f8ng c\u00f1a th\u00d0p v\u00edi h\u00aci

n\u00ad\u00edc v\u00b5 oxy kh\u00abng kh\u00dd. G\u00d8 th\u00d0p trong qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh b\u00b6o qu\u00b6n, gia c\u00abng l\u00bep d\u00f9ng tr\u00ad\u00edc khi s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00e3 \u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng l\u00edn \u00ae\u00d5n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng. G\u00d8 th\u00d0p kh\u00abng nh\u00f7ng l\u00b5m suy gi\u00b6m l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t gi\u00f7a th\u00d0p v\u00edi l\u00edp b\u00b6o v\u00d6 b\u00aan ngo\u00b5i m\u00b5 h\u00acn n\u00f7a n\u00e3 c\u00dfn l\u00b5 nguy\u00aan nh\u00a9n g\u00a9y ra hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng \u00a8n m\u00dfn, s\u00edm ph\u00b8 h\u00f1y k\u00d5t c\u00cau \u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng v\u00efng bi\u00d3n. C\u00e3 nhi\u00d2u gi\u00b6i ph\u00b8p x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p nh\u00ad ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p c\u00ac h\u00e4c, \u00aei\u00d6n h\u00e3a, h\u00e3a h\u00e4c\u2026 trong \u00ae\u00e3 s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng ch\u00cat bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i g\u00d8 l\u00b5 gi\u00b6i ph\u00b8p c\u00e3 nhi\u00d2u \u00adu \u00aei\u00d3m h\u00acn c\u00b6. C\u00b8c k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u v\u00b5 \u00f8ng d\u00f4ng t\u00b9i Vi\u00d6t Nam b\u00ad\u00edc \u00ae\u00c7u cho th\u00cay s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng ch\u00cat bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i g\u00d8 x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p an to\u00b5n, \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng ch\u00e8ng \u00a8n m\u00dfn, kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00e9c h\u00b9i, d\u00d4 s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng v\u00b5 chi ph\u00dd th\u00cap.

1. \u00a7\u00c6t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2

G\u00d8 th\u00d0p l\u00b5 hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n v\u00b5 th\u00ad\u00eang g\u00c6p trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng. T\u00b9i v\u00de tr\u00dd n\u00b5o c\u00e3 th\u00d0p th\u00d7 h\u00c7u nh\u00ad \u00ae\u00d2u xu\u00cat hi\u00d6n g\u00d8 \u00aei k\u00ccm n\u00d5u kh\u00abng c\u00e3 c\u00b8c bi\u00d6n ph\u00b8p b\u00b6o v\u00d6 th\u00ddch h\u00eep. Hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng g\u00d8 th\u00d0p th\u00ad\u00eang g\u00c6p nh\u00cat \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i th\u00d0p tr\u00c7n, ch\u00d8 sau m\u00e9t th\u00eai gian ng\u00ben ti\u00d5p x\u00f3c v\u00edi m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang b\u00aan ngo\u00b5i \u00ae\u2219 c\u00e3 xu\u00cat hi\u00d6n c\u00b8c v\u00d6t g\u00d8 m\u00c7u v\u00b5ng nh\u00b9t \u00ae\u00d5n n\u00a9u l\u00b5m gi\u00b6m c\u00b8c t\u00ddnh n\u00a8ng c\u00ac l\u00fd c\u00f1a th\u00d0p, d\u00c9n t\u00edi gi\u00b6m ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng th\u00d0p, nghi\u00aam tr\u00e4ng h\u00acn c\u00e3 th\u00d3 g\u00a9y ra c\u00b8c s\u00f9 c\u00e8 c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh.

H\u00d7nh 1. Hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng g\u00d8 th\u00d0p v\u00b5 ph\u00b8 h\u00f1y k\u00d5t c\u00cau b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p

\u00a7\u00d3 t\u00a8ng c\u00ad\u00eang kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c l\u00a9u d\u00b5i c\u00f1a th\u00d0p, tr\u00ad\u00edc khi s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng ph\u00b6i \u00b8p d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c bi\u00d6n ph\u00b8p l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch b\u00d2 m\u00c6t. Tuy nhi\u00aan trong \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n kh\u00dd h\u00cbu n\u00e3ng \u00c8m c\u00f1a Vi\u00d6t Nam, ph\u00c7n l\u00edn th\u00d0p nhanh ch\u00e3ng b\u00de g\u00d8 khi ti\u00d5p x\u00f3c v\u00edi m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang xung quanh [1]. C\u00b8c gi\u00b6i ph\u00b8p l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 th\u00abng th\u00ad\u00eang t\u00e8n nhi\u00d2u chi ph\u00dd, th\u00eai gian \u00ae\u00e5ng th\u00eai kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng b\u00b6o v\u00d6 th\u00d0p l\u00a9u d\u00b5i, c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng ti\u00d2m \u00c8n d\u00c9n t\u00edi xu\u00cat hi\u00d6n c\u00b8c s\u00f9 c\u00e8 do \u00a8n m\u00dfn th\u00d0p trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng.

Do v\u00cby vi\u00d6c nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u c\u00b8c c\u00b8c bi\u00d6n ph\u00b8p k\u00fc thu\u00cbt x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8, b\u00b6o qu\u00b6n th\u00d0p trong \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n Vi\u00d6t Nam l\u00b5 c\u00c7n thi\u00d5t v\u00b5 c\u00cap b\u00b8ch g\u00e3p ph\u00c7n h\u00b9n ch\u00d5 t\u00e8i \u00aea s\u00f9 c\u00e8 c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh, \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o v\u00b5 n\u00a9ng cao ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh \u00ae\u00b9t tu\u00e6i th\u00e4 theo thi\u00d5t k\u00d5.

2. Hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng v\u00b5 ph\u00a9n lo\u00b9i v\u00b5 b\u00b6n ch\u00cat c\u00f1a g\u00d8 th\u00d0p

G\u00d8 l\u00b5 s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh \u00a8n m\u00dfn th\u00d0p do t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng c\u00f1a c\u00b8c y\u00d5u t\u00e8 t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan nh\u00ad n\u00ad\u00edc, oxy kh\u00abng kh\u00dd v\u00edi s\u00bet. G\u00d8 th\u00d0p c\u00e3 th\u00d3 ph\u00a9n th\u00b5nh nhi\u00d2u lo\u00b9i theo nhi\u00d2u ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p kh\u00b8c nhau tu\u00fa thu\u00e9c v\u00b5o th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n, t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat c\u00f1a g\u00d8 nh\u00adng ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n nh\u00cat l\u00b5 ph\u00a9n lo\u00b9i theo h\u00d7nh d\u00b9ng c\u00f1a g\u00d8 th\u00d0p.

B\u00b6ng 1 - M\u00f8c \u00ae\u00e9 g\u00d8 c\u00f1a b\u00d2 m\u00c6t th\u00d0p tr\u00ad\u00edc khi l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch [4]
K\u00fd hi\u00d6u m\u00f8c \u00ae\u00e9 g\u00d8
Tr\u00b9ng th\u00b8i b\u00d2 m\u00c6t t\u00ad\u00acng \u00f8ng
A
\u00a7\u2219 ch\u00edm c\u00e3 g\u00d8 nh\u00adng c\u00dfn r\u00cat \u00ddt.
B
B\u00d2 m\u00c6t th\u00d0p \u00ae\u2219 b\u00bet \u00ae\u00c7u c\u00e3 c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e8m g\u00d8 d\u00b9ng b\u00f4i ph\u00can v\u00b5 g\u00d8 c\u00e3 th\u00d3
bong ra.
C
B\u00d2 m\u00c6t th\u00d0p c\u00e3 v\u00b6y g\u00d8 d\u00b9ng h\u00b9t bong ra ho\u00c6c c\u00b9o ra \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec, xu\u00cat hi\u00d6n
c\u00b8c v\u00d5t l\u00e2m nh\u00e1 nh\u00d7n th\u00cay \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec.
D
B\u00d2 m\u00c6t th\u00d0p c\u00e3 nhi\u00d2u v\u00b6y g\u00d8 l\u00edn bong ra, xu\u00cat hi\u00d6n nhi\u00d2u v\u00d5t l\u00e2m nh\u00e1
d\u00d4 nh\u00d7n th\u00cay b\u00bbng m\u00bet th\u00ad\u00eang.

C\u00b8c lo\u00b9i g\u00d8 kh\u00b8c nhau c\u00e3 li\u00aan quan m\u00cbt thi\u00d5t \u00ae\u00d5n nhau: g\u00d8 v\u00c8y lo\u00b9i D \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh t\u00f5 g\u00d8 h\u00b9t lo\u00b9i C, c\u00dfn g\u00d8 h\u00b9t \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh t\u00f5 g\u00d8 ph\u00can lo\u00b9i B... Th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i g\u00d8 c\u00f2ng t\u00ad\u00acng \u00ae\u00e8i gi\u00e8ng nhau, ch\u00d8 kh\u00b8c ch\u00d8 kh\u00b8c nhau c\u00ac b\u00b6n v\u00d2 h\u00b5m l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i oxyt v\u00b5 hy\u00aeroxyt trong \u00ae\u00e3.

V\u00d2 b\u00b6n ch\u00cat ho\u00b8 h\u00e4c, g\u00d8 th\u00d0p l\u00b5 c\u00b8c oxyt hay hi\u00aerdxyt s\u00bet nh\u00ad goethite(\u03b1-FeOOH), akaganetite(\u03b2-FeOOH), lepidocroxite(\u03b3-FeOOH), oxyt s\u00bet t\u00f5 magnetite( Fe3O4 ), maghemite(\u03b3-Fe2O3) v\u00b5 hematite(\u03b1-Fe2O3). G\u00d8 t\u00f5 nh\u00f7ng lo\u00b9i h\u00eep ch\u00cat n\u00b5y t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh c\u00b8c l\u00edp li\u00aan t\u00f4c kh\u00b8c nhau \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec li\u00aan k\u00d5t l\u00b9i t\u00f5 nh\u00f7ng h\u00b9t g\u00d8 nh\u00e1 ph\u00c7n l\u00edn\u00eb tr\u00b9ng th\u00b8i ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng g\u00a9y g\u00d8 v\u00b5 \u00a8n m\u00dfn s\u00a9u v\u00b5o b\u00aan trong th\u00d0p [6,7].

3.\u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng c\u00f1a g\u00d8 th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00d5n t\u00edi ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng

G\u00d8 th\u00d0p ch\u00ada x\u00f6 l\u00fd c\u00e3 \u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng l\u00edn \u00ae\u00d5n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng. \u00a7\u00a9y c\u00f2ng l\u00b5 m\u00e9t trong c\u00b8c nguy\u00aan nh\u00a9n ch\u00ddnh d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00d5n s\u00edm ph\u00b8 h\u00f1y k\u00d5t c\u00cau th\u00d0p v\u00b5 b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00b8c c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng v\u00efng bi\u00d5n [1,5].

V\u00edi c\u00b8c k\u00d5t c\u00cau th\u00d0p kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec b\u00b6o v\u00d6, sau 1 n\u00a8m th\u00f6 nghi\u00d6m cho th\u00cay t\u00efy thu\u00e9c v\u00b5o m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang n\u00e3i chung l\u00ad\u00eeng th\u00d0p hao h\u00f4t t\u00f5 500 \u00ae\u00d5n2 000g/m2. Ngo\u00b5i ra c\u00dfn l\u00b5m suy gi\u00b6m l\u00f9c b\u00b8m d\u00ddnh gi\u00f7a th\u00d0p v\u00edi l\u00edp ph\u00f1 b\u00b6o v\u00d6 v\u00b5 g\u00a9y ra \u00a8n m\u00dfn \u00aei\u00d3m. \u00a7i\u00d2u \u00ae\u00e3 d\u00c9n t\u00edi m\u00cat kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng b\u00b6o v\u00d6 c\u00f1a c\u00b8c l\u00edp ph\u00f1 b\u00aan ngo\u00b5i.

M\u00e9t s\u00e8 k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u c\u00f1a Vi\u00d6n KHCN X\u00a9y d\u00f9ng cho th\u00cay g\u00d8 c\u00e8t th\u00d0p n\u00d5u ch\u00ada

\u00ae\u00ad\u00eec l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n c\u00e3 \u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng l\u00edn \u00ae\u00d5n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p, ch\u00f1 y\u00d5u\u00eb hai y\u00d5u t\u00e8 l\u00b5 gi\u00b6m l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t gi\u00f7a th\u00d0p v\u00edi b\u00aa t\u00abng v\u00b5 t\u00a8ng m\u00f8c \u00ae\u00e9 \u00a8n m\u00dfn c\u00f1a th\u00d0p trong b\u00aa t\u00abng theo th\u00eai gian [2].

H\u00d7nh2. T\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 \u00a8n m\u00dfn v\u00e0 l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t c\u00f1a th\u00d0p trong b\u00aa t\u00abng
0
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9 10 11 12Th\u00b8ng
T\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 \u00a8n
m\u00dfn
(mm/n\u00a8m)
40
45
50
55
60
30
60
90
120
180
240
360
Ng\u00b5y
L\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t
(Kg/cm2)
DCBA

C\u00b8c k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 th\u00f6 nghi\u00d6m sau 1 n\u00a8m ch\u00d8 ra r\u00bbng n\u00d5u th\u00d0p ch\u00ada l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8, l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t gi\u00f7a th\u00d0p g\u00d8\u00eb c\u00b8c m\u00f8c \u00ae\u00e9 A, B, C, v\u00b5 D v\u00edi b\u00aa t\u00abng trong th\u00eai \u00aei\u00d3m \u00ae\u00c7u c\u00e3 t\u00a8ng tuy nhi\u00aan theo th\u00eai gian th\u00d7 c\u00e3 xu h\u00ad\u00edng gi\u00b6m d\u00c7n(H\u00d7nh2).

Nguy\u00aan nh\u00a9n ch\u00ddnh d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00d5n hi\u00d6n t\u00ad\u00eeng n\u00b5y \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec xem l\u00b5 do th\u00d0p g\u00d8 c\u00e3 di\u00d6n t\u00ddch b\u00d2 m\u00c6t l\u00edn h\u00acn th\u00d0p th\u00ad\u00eang, l\u00f9c ma s\u00b8t t\u00b9o ra l\u00edn n\u00aan l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t v\u00edi b\u00aa t\u00abng cao. T\u00b9i th\u00eai \u00aei\u00d3m ban \u00ae\u00c7u s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m g\u00d8 ti\u00d5p t\u00f4c ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n g\u00a9y n\u00eb t\u00b9o \u00f8ng su\u00cat \u00d0p v\u00b5o b\u00d2 m\u00c6t b\u00aa t\u00abng n\u00aan l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t l\u00edn h\u00acn v\u00b5 t\u00a8ng d\u00c7n. Tuy nhi\u00aan d\u00c7n d\u00c7n theo th\u00eai gian th\u00d7 g\u00d8 th\u00d0p c\u00b5ng ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n, s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m g\u00d8 t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh kh\u00abng c\u00dfn t\u00ddnh li\u00aan k\u00d5t v\u00edi th\u00d0p n\u00d2n n\u00aan l\u00f9c li\u00aan k\u00d5t gi\u00b6m d\u00c7n.

B\u00aan c\u00b9nh \u00ae\u00e3 g\u00d8 th\u00d0p do ch\u00ada \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec x\u00f6 l\u00fd n\u00aan c\u00f2ng l\u00b5 m\u00c7m t\u00b9o \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n th\u00f3c \u00ae\u00c8y qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh \u00a8n m\u00dfn ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n. B\u00d7nh th\u00ad\u00eang th\u00d0p sau m\u00e9t th\u00eai gian l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c l\u00a9u d\u00b5i, do c\u00b8c y\u00d5u t\u00e8 b\u00aan ngo\u00b5i x\u00a9m th\u00f9c t\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e9ng m\u00b9nh m\u00edi t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh g\u00d8. Nh\u00adng th\u00d0p \u00ae\u2219 c\u00e3 s\u00bdn g\u00d8 th\u00d7 c\u00b8c v\u00d5t g\u00d8 c\u00e3 t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat x\u00e8p, l\u00b5 n\u00aci t\u00ddch t\u00f4 nhi\u00d2u oxy v\u00b5 h\u00aci \u00c8m s\u00cf d\u00d4 d\u00b5ng ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n g\u00d8 nhanh v\u00b5 m\u00b9nh h\u00acn nhi\u00d2u. T\u00b9i th\u00eai \u00aei\u00d3m ban \u00ae\u00c7u, g\u00d8 th\u00d0p m\u00edi t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh c\u00dfn b\u00de \u00f8c ch\u00d5 b\u00ebi m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang ki\u00d2m trong b\u00aa t\u00abng nh\u00adng theo th\u00eai gian m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang ki\u00d2m trong b\u00aa t\u00abng kh\u00abng c\u00dfn kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng t\u00b8i t\u00b9o m\u00b5ng th\u00f4 \u00ae\u00e9ng b\u00b6o v\u00d6, g\u00d8 th\u00d0p ti\u00d5p t\u00f4c ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n v\u00b5 t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 \u00a8n m\u00dfn th\u00d0p t\u00a8ng.

Do v\u00cby, d\u00ef v\u00edi b\u00cat c\u00f8 d\u00b9ng g\u00d8 n\u00b5o c\u00f2ng c\u00e3 th\u00d3 nh\u00cbn th\u00cay n\u00d5u kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec x\u00f6 l\u00fd tri\u00d6t \u00ae\u00d3 ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n th\u00d7 g\u00d8 th\u00d0p l\u00b5 nguy\u00aan nh\u00a9n ch\u00f1 y\u00d5u l\u00b5m suy gi\u00b6m kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c c\u00f1a k\u00d5t c\u00cau b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p, d\u00c9n t\u00edi nguy c\u00ac ti\u00d2m \u00c8n x\u00c8y ra c\u00b8c s\u00f9 c\u00e8 c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh.

4. C\u00b8c ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p

Do g\u00d8 th\u00d0p c\u00e3 \u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng l\u00edn \u00ae\u00d5n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p n\u00aan c\u00b8c ti\u00aau chu\u00c8n v\u00d2 thi c\u00abng, nghi\u00d6m thu th\u00d0p trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng c\u00f2ng \u00ae\u2219 \u00ae\u00d2u c\u00e3 c\u00b8c quy \u00ae\u00denh b\u00bet bu\u00e9c ph\u00b6i l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 th\u00d0p tr\u00ad\u00edc khi \u00ae\u00e6 b\u00aa t\u00abng [3,4]. B\u00aan c\u00b9nh \u00ae\u00e3 c\u00b8c nh\u00b5 khoa h\u00e4c tr\u00aan th\u00d5 gi\u00edi c\u00f2ng nh\u00ad\u00eb Vi\u00d6t Nam \u00ae\u2219 c\u00e3 nhi\u00d2u c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u nh\u00bbm gi\u00b6i quy\u00d5t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 n\u00b5y, d\u00ad\u00edi \u00ae\u00a9y l\u00b5 m\u00e9t s\u00e8 bi\u00d6n ph\u00b8p l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch v\u00b5 x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec \u00b8p d\u00f4ng trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng.

B\u00b6ng2. M\u00e9t s\u00e8 ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p
C\u00b8c ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p x\u00f6 l\u00fd g\u00d8 th\u00d0p
TT
C\u00ac h\u00e4c
\u00a7i\u00d6n h\u00e3a
H\u00e3a h\u00e4c
M\u00ab t\u00b6

S\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c c\u00abng c\u00f4, thi\u00d5t
b\u00de l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 b\u00bbng c\u00b8c t\u00b8c
\u00ae\u00e9ng c\u00ac h\u00e4c nh\u00ad ch\u00b5 s\u00b8t, va
\u00ae\u00cbp

L\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 b\u00bbng d\u00dfng
\u00aei\u00d6n d\u00f9a tr\u00aan c\u00b8c ph\u00b6n
\u00f8ng \u00aei\u00d6n ph\u00a9n

S\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c h\u00e3a ch\u00cat c\u00e3
tham gia ph\u00b6n \u00f8ng h\u00e3a
h\u00e4c v\u00edi g\u00d8 th\u00d0p

\u00a6u
\u00aei\u00d3m

-L\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 t\u00e8t
- D\u00f4ng c\u00f4 v\u00b5 thi\u00d5t b\u00de s\u00f6
d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n
-Lao \u00ae\u00e9ng ph\u00e6 th\u00abng,
kh\u00abng c\u00c7n k\u00fc thu\u00cbt cao.

-L\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 t\u00e8t
- C\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch
g\u00d8\u00eb c\u00b8c v\u00de tr\u00dd ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p

- C\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8
\u00eb c\u00b8c v\u00de tr\u00dd ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p.

- D\u00d4 \u00b8p d\u00f4ng c\u00b6 trong
x\u00ad\u00ebng l\u00c9n ngo\u00b5i c\u00abng
tr\u00ad\u00eang
- T\u00b9o m\u00b5ng b\u00b6o v\u00d6 l\u00a9u d\u00b5i

Nh\u00ad\u00eec
\u00aei\u00d3m

- Th\u00d0p nhanh b\u00de t\u00b8i g\u00d8 tr\u00eb l\u00b9i
- G\u00a9y \u00ab nhi\u00d4m m\u00abi tr\u00ad\u00eang
- G\u00a9y \u00b6nh h\u00ad\u00ebng \u00ae\u00d5n s\u00f8c
kh\u00e1e ng\u00ad\u00eai lao \u00ae\u00e9ng

- Ch\u00d8 l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec c\u00b8c
k\u00d5t c\u00cau c\u00e3 k\u00ddch th\u00ad\u00edc
nh\u00e1
- Kh\u00e3 \u00b8p d\u00f4ng ngo\u00b5i
c\u00abng tr\u00ad\u00eang.
- Thi\u00d5t b\u00de v\u00b5 m\u00b8y m\u00e3c
ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p

- Ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 ph\u00f4 thu\u00e9c nhi\u00d2u v\u00b5o h\u00e3a ch\u00cat s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng

Trong th\u00f9c t\u00d5, \u00ae\u00d3 \u00ae\u00b9t hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 t\u00e8i \u00adu th\u00d7 t\u00efy thu\u00e9c t\u00f5ng c\u00abng \u00aeo\u00b9n, lo\u00b9i k\u00d5t c\u00cau m\u00b5
ng\u00ad\u00eai ta ph\u00e8i h\u00eep c\u00b8c ph\u00ad\u00acng ph\u00b8p l\u00b5m s\u00b9ch g\u00d8 kh\u00b8c nhau nh\u00bbm \u00ae\u00b9t k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 cao nh\u00cat.

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