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Published by anicin7670
Nuclear and Particle Physics
Nuclear and Particle Physics

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Published by: anicin7670 on Sep 21, 2009
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Its past, present and futureIvan V. Anicin
Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, YugoslaviaVinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
The review consists of two parts. In the first part the criticalpoints in the past, present and future of neutrino physics (nuclear,particle and astroparticle) are briefly reviewed. In the second partthe contributions of Yugoslav physics to the physics of theneutrino are commented upon. The review is meant as a firstreading for the newcomers to the field of neutrino physics.
Table of contentsIntroduction
a.2. Electromagnetic properties of the neutrino
 A.1. Short history of the neutrino
b. Neutrino in branches of knowledge otherthan neutrino physics
A.1.1. First epoch: 1930-1956
A.2. The present status of the neutrino
A.1.2. Second epoch: 1956-1958
A.3. The future of neutrino physics
A.1.3. Third epoch: 1958-1983
A.1.4. Fourth epoch: 1983-2001
a. The properties of the neutrino B.1. The Thallium solar neutrino experiment
a.1. Neutrino masses B.2. The neutrinoless double beta decay
a.1.1. Direct methods
a.1.2. Indirect methods
a.1.2.1. Neutrinoless double beta decaya.1.2.2. Neutrino oscillations
The neutrinos appear to constitute by number of species not less than onequarter of the particles which make the world, and even half of the stable ones.By number of particles in the Universe they are perhaps second only tophotons. Yet, seventy years after we first suspected their existence, amazinglylittle is known about their detailed properties.According to the views of the actual Standard Model of elementary particlesand their interactions (the SM for short) all matter is built out of only 12structureless fermions: 6 quarks and 6 leptons, which fall into left-handedweak isospin doublets of the three generations:
 µ τ  
ν ν ν τ   µ 
(1)The leptons do not experience strong interactions while the universality of theweak interaction requires the mixing of strong interaction (or mass) quark eigenstates
into the primed weak eigenstates:
    
        
. (2)where the matrix elements of the unitary CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) transformation matrix are determined experimentally. To eachdoublet in (1) there corresponds a weak interaction vertex in which the twofermions are coupled to a charged W boson, always with the same weak coupling constant. The experimental width of the neutral Z boson resonancecorresponds to three neutrino flavors almost exactly, what asserts that thescheme is complete, and is one of the cornerstones of the SM.The masses of the neutrinos of all three flavors are, by Occam's razor, allassumed in the SM to exactly vanish, implying that the lepton families do notmix, and that the three lepton numbers are separately exactly conserved. Theneutrinos are further assumed to be Dirac particles, the antineutrino beinggenuinely different from the neutrino of the same flavor.
Due to the extremely feeble interaction ability of the neutrinos, which are theonly electrically neutral fundamental fermions and do not bind to the systemsof other stable particles, much hard work went into establishing this picture,but whether the leptons indeed behave as assumed by the SM is not at allcertain. Different alternative properties of the neutrino, and/or of the weak interaction, are not excluded by experimental evidence which we accumulatedup to now.In what follows we give an outline of the evolution of our knowledge of theneutrino, discuss where we stand today, and comment on some possible futuredevelopments. Relations of Yugoslav physics to some episodes of the physicsof the neutrino are reviewed. The first part is the personal view of the events inwhich the author did not actively participate, while those described in thesecond part are known to the author in much greater detail.References to historical work which has become common knowledge, whichare available in most textbooks on nuclear and particle physics, are notexplicitly cited in the general review. Complementary and more detailedinformation about the history of neutrino physics is to be found in manyexcellent extensive reviews and recollections on the subject, and referencestherein (1-8). Most of the subtleties of neutrino physics are probably bestreviewed and systematized in Ref.25, while all but the latest numerical resultsare summarized in Ref. 13.
A. GENERAL REVIEW OF NEUTRINO PHYSICSA.1. Short history of the neutrino
A.1.1. First epoch; 1930-1956
 Neutrino is conjectured, put into a sound theoretical frame, and finallydetected 
In the momentous late 1920's, even after the rise of both non-relativistic andrelativistic quantum mechanics, the atoms were thought to have beencomposed only of protons and electrons. The electrons were supposed to existboth in the nucleus (the nuclear electrons, which were thought to be ejected inbeta decay) as well as around it (the atomic electrons). The need for a certain,yet unseen nuclear particle, which had to carry energy and spin in theprocesses of nuclear beta decay together with the beta electron, becameespecially pressing when after some twenty years of hard experimenting thecalorimetric measurements of the total energy released in the decay gave samevalues as the integrated continuous spectrum obtained by the magneticspectrometry of the emitted beta radiation, and when this fell short of the Q

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